|Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto||Departemen Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229 Bandung, 40154, Indonesia|
|Risti Ragadhita||Departemen Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229 Bandung, 40154, Indonesia|
|A Ana||Fakultas Pendidikan Teknik dan Kejuruan, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229 Bandung, 40154, Indonesia|
|Belkheir Hammouti||Laboratory LCAE, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed Premier University, Oujda 60000, Morocco|
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of starch, lipid, and protein components in flour on the mechanical properties of Indonesian Biji Ketapang (BK) cookies. Since the type of flour determines the amounts of nutrients, three types of flour (i.e., wheat, rice, and tapioca flour) were used as models. The results showed that the rheological properties of flour, which depend on starch, lipid, and protein components, influenced the spread ratio, making the components homogeneously distributed and controlling the dimensions and pores inside the cookies. Indeed, changes in the dimensions and pores affected the mechanical properties of the cookies (compressive strength and hardness parameters). Cookies made from rice, wheat, and tapioca flours have a pore size (?m)/shore scale of 42/52.57, 23/45.14, and 15/35.71, respectively. In general, the nutrients in the flour had a significant impact on the physical and mechanical properties of cookies. Starch is the main nutrient that influences the physical properties of cookies. Lipid and protein influence the amount of water absorbed, while water molecules can spread the material components in the cookies to make them more homogeneous, allowing cookies to swell with pores and influencing their mechanical properties. Flour with low-protein content led to the creation of cookies with better crispness and hardness. A proposed mechanism in the formation of pores in the cookies during the preparation of BK was presented. The analysis of nutrient components (i.e., starch, lipid, and protein) in the BK is also presented. The results are important in terms of the health benefits of these cookies related to the type of flour used, especially for producing “gluten-free foods.” Thus, the results could offer benefits for product management.
Cookies Quality; Crispness; Rice Flour; Tapioca Flour; Wheat Flour
Biji ketapang (BK) cookies are a traditional Indonesian snack food made from flour, sugar, margarine, and egg yolk (Delima, 2013). BK cookies are popular because of their sweet and crunchy taste and hard texture. They are convenient, ready to eat, and have a long shelf life (Nagi et al., 2012). They offer a valuable opportunity for nutritional improvement because they are usually made with enriched additives, such as fat, sugar, and developer ingredients. In addition, cookies are the largest category of snacks worldwide. The rate of dried cookie consumption in Indonesia in 2011–2015 represented 24.22% of the total food consumption. This consumption rate is higher than that of wet cookies (17.78%) (Meilysa, 2018). The creation of highly delicious cookies has been well documented, either using single flours or a mixed composition of flours. Various flours have been reported, including wheat (Loza et al., 2017), legume, sorghum (Okpala and Okoli, 2011), cassava (Yenrina et al., 2020), wheat and plantain, sorghum, and legume (Okpala and Okoli, 2011), mocaf and ketapang seeds (Yenrina et al., 2020), and wheat and cassava (Bala et al., 2015). However, few studies have examined how to control the hardness of cookies.
To make BK with a specific level of crispness, good strategies (especially in the selection of raw materials) are required. Although some reports have presented strategies for controlling crispness (reducing water levels or dehydration processes as well as modification, fortification, the substitution of flour with suitable raw materials and the addition of crunchy ingredients (Cardoso et al., 2019), there is no information on applying these techniques to BK. Understanding BK is important since it has socioeconomic (to understand what people need) and culture and heritage impacts (Ashari et al., 2021; Qotrunnada and Nurani, 2022).
Based on our previous works on controlling the mechanical properties of the food material (i.e., cookies and crackers) (Anggraeni et al., 2020a; Anggraeni et al., 2020b; Anggraeni et al., 2020c; Nandiyanto et al., 2018; Nandiyanto et al., 2020; Triawan et al., 2020), the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of starch, lipid, and protein components of flour on the mechanical properties of BK. Since the type of flour determines the amount of nutrients, three types of flours were used in this study (i.e., wheat, rice, and tapioca flours). The novelties of this research are (i) understanding phenomena happening during the baking process, including changes in nutrients and physicochemical properties; and (ii) understanding how to adjust the hardness of cookies by controlling the nutrient composition (e.g., protein, carbohydrates, fat, water). The analysis of nutrient components (i.e., starch, lipid, and protein) in BK is presented. The results are important in terms of the health benefits of these cookies relating to the flour used, especially to support people suffering from allergies caused by selected fractions of gluten proteins. In addition, there is a consumer trend for selecting so-called “gluten-free foods.” We found that this type of food can be achieved when producing BK from a specific flour (i.e. tapioca flour). Thus, the results offer product management benefits. Indeed, it is the main duty of engineers to develop products (Kusrini and Kartohardjono, 2019; Suzianti et al., 2015).
We are grateful to RISTEK BRIN (Penelitian Terapan Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PTUPT), as well as Bangdos Program and the World Class University Program in Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
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