• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 14, No 4 (2023)

Highly Efficient Technology for Making Bread Using an Ion-ozone Mixture

Highly Efficient Technology for Making Bread Using an Ion-ozone Mixture

Title: Highly Efficient Technology for Making Bread Using an Ion-ozone Mixture
Auyelbek Iztayev, Sholpan Tursunbayeva, Saule Zhiyenbayeva, Galiya Iskakova, Ainur Matibayeva, Raushan Izteliyeva, Madina Yakiyayeva

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Cite this article as:
Iztayev, A., Tursunbayeva, S., Zhiyenbayeva, S., Iskakova, G., Matibayeva, A., Izteliyeva, R., Yakiyayeva, M., 2023. Highly Efficient Technology for Making Bread Using an Ion-ozone Mixture. International Journal of Technology. Volume 14(4), pp. 695-704

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Auyelbek Iztayev Research Institute of Food Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
Sholpan Tursunbayeva Department "Technology of bread and processing industries", Faculty of Food Technology, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
Saule Zhiyenbayeva Department "Technology of bread and processing industries", Faculty of Food Technology, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
Galiya Iskakova Department "Technology of bread and processing industries", Faculty of Food Technology, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
Ainur Matibayeva Department "Food technology", Faculty of Food Technology, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
Raushan Izteliyeva Department "Food quality and safety", Faculty of Food Technology, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
Madina Yakiyayeva Research Institute of Food Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Almaty Technological University, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
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Abstract
Highly Efficient Technology for Making Bread Using an Ion-ozone Mixture

The article examined the ways of using highly effective technologies for the development of whole-wheat flour bread. Ion-ozone cavitation technology is used, which allows time reduction for dough making and bread baking. The flour used in the experiment is of various kinds of low-quality wheat: non-class wheat, class III, class IV, and class V wheat . During the experiments, the amino acid composition of wheat was determined, which has a large impact on the quality of the test. To obtain a high-quality dough, wheat grains of various lower classes were treated with ion-ozone cavitation treatment. The treatment was carried out using a universal ion-ozone cavitation installation, producing both ozone and molecular ions from oxygen contained in atmospheric air and processed using overpressure of crops. The experiment result shows that the method of processing with ion-ozone cavitation technology allows the improvement of the rheological properties of the dough, the reduction of baking time by 2 times, and the improvement of the quality of bread from whole-ground low-quality soft wheat flour. The obtained bread products in comparison with the control sample had higher organoleptic indices; according to several physico-chemical and organoleptic indices, a sample of bread from whole-wheat wheat of class III appeared in a more favorable light.

Bread; Ion; Ozone; Processing; Wheat

Introduction

The production of bread and bakery products is one of the main issues in the production of food. It shares 15.3% of the total production of the food industry. The greatest demand among the population is bread and bakery products from wheat flour of the first grade, rye bread, and products from wheat flour of the highest grade. Previously, the 3rd class grain, from which baking flour is obtained, was in a total volume of 80%; now it is only 20%. The problem is not the quality of bread, because the baking industry is ready and is trying to produce quality bread. The problem lies in the quality of flour and grain. In fact, it is not profitable for agricultural producers to produce high-quality grain (Satsaeva et al., 2016; Baymagambetova et al., 2014).
    Wheat is one of the main sources of calories in daily human nutrition. According to US standards, T. durum wheat belongs to class I, which corresponds to GOST R 52554–2006 (GOST R 52554–2006, 2006). Hard-grain wheat of type II, II, III. Class IV in the American standard corresponds to the botanical species T. aestivum, while soft-wheat corresponds to separate class IV and VI.  The optimal chemical composition and structure of the food matrix of whole wheat grains can contribute to preventive action and reduce the risks of chronic diseases. It was also suggested that, in addition to the effects of dietary fiber, the synergistic effect of some bioactive compounds helps to protect health and maintain the normal functioning of the body (Kokhmetova et al., 2014; Chakraverty and Singh, 2004).
    Whole wheat flour is the main source of protein and starch that can be present in bread while retaining the fully original nutritional value of wheat and enriching the composition of bread with macro- and micronutrients as well. In whole-wheat flour, all anatomical components of the grain, such as the endosperm, the germ, and the shell layers, are present in the same proportions as in the grain. Such flour contains significantly more dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals compared with varietal types of flour (Kalinina and Fatkullin 2016; Yakiyayeva et al., 2016; Slavin, 2004). Studies by scientists from different countries show that consuming whole grain foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, various types of cancer, and type 2 diabetes, and possibly improve body weight regulation. The technology of preparing bread on cavitation-activated water, accompanied by hydration structuring of gluten proteins, allows the increase of the specific volume of bread, increases its elasticity, slows down the hardening, and reduces the use of baking improvers (Meleshkina, 2018; Mei et al., 2016; Maemerov, 2004).

    Ion-ozone processing of products affects the biological and physiological effects, the development and vital functions, produces a disinfecting effect, increases the biological value of bread, increases the shelf life of finished bread by reducing the negative impact of external factors (improving grain safety, reducing the factors that lead to bread diseases, etc.) for storage of finished bread (Munarso et al., 2020; Maemerov et al., 2011; Erkmen, 2001; Kim, Yousef, and Khadre, 2001). We propose ways to improve the quality of bread using innovative ion-ozone cavitation technology in baking with wheat of different classes.
    Ion-ozone cavitation plant for accelerated dough preparation simplifies and improves the accuracy of the process of dividing the dough into portions of a given weight, improves the quality of aerated dough, reduces energy consumption, and increases production productivity. Cavitation processing of the dough allows for reducing the technological process of production, in particular, to reduce the process of fermentation of the dough in the preparation of bakery products, and reduce the amount of pressed yeast in the test. The use of cavitation processing of dough makes it possible to reduce the duration of the technological process of bread production from 3 to 6 hours, significantly increase labor productivity by 2-3 times, and increase bread yield by 14-18%.

Experimental Methods

The use of deep processing of whole meal flour from promising varieties of low-grade wheat and cavitation processing of dough improves the quality, nutritional and biological values, and safety of finished products and reduces the technological process of production. Organoleptic and physico-chemical were used as indicators to prove the quality and nutritional value of the products and were examined in the Accredited Food Safety Testing Laboratory.
    To accomplish the tasks, first of all, an analysis of the technique and technology of bakery products from low-grade wheat was carried out. Ways were identified to intensify the production of bakery products based on ion-ozone cavitation technology for making dough from low-grade wheat in order to improve quality, reduce the technological process of production, increase labor productivity, and improve the socio-economic indicators of bakery enterprises. Safety studies of raw materials and developed bakery products are carried out in accredited food safety laboratories.
    Whole-ground wheat grain of the following classes was determined as an object of research: III, IV, V, as well as non-class wheat. Grain sampling was carried out according to GOST 13586.3–2015 (GOST 13586.3–2015, 2015). The mass fraction of protein in terms of dry matter was determined according to GOST 10846–91 (GOST 10846–91, 2009). The total amino acid composition was determined according to GOST 32195–2013 (GOST 32195–2013, 2013). The amino acid rate was calculated by comparing the amino acid composition of the grain protein with the scale of the adequacy of the content of essential amino acids in the “ideal protein” according to the UNO/WHO (United Nations Organization/World Health Organization) as applied to human needs in adulthood. The limiting amino acid was determined by amino acid - lysine.
    Research and baking of bread products were carried out on the basis of scientific laboratories of Almaty Technological University.
    Before grinding, wheat of low grades was processed in an ion-ozone cavitation installation (Figure 1)
    In order to receive ions in this installation, oxygen is passed through an ion chamber, in which quiet electric charges act. This process charges oxygen with negative ions. Enriched oxygen enters and grain processing takes place. Oxygen molecules take away electrons and become negatively charged ions and they are significantly ten times more chemically active than uncharged oxygen molecules. The negative ions resulted contribute to the improvement of biochemical and vitamin properties of the product.

 

Figure 1 Ion-ozone cavitation installation: (1) ion-ozone generator; (2) cavitation capacity

    Through the ozone generator, the wheat receives ozone. This method is based on the ability of oxygen molecules to decay into atoms under the influence of electric discharge energy. Atomic oxygen, in turn, immediately combines with an oxygen molecule, turning it into ozone.
    By combining the electrical circuits of the ionizer and ozonator installation, an ion-ozonator installation has been developed that neutralizes all harmful synthesized impurities, as a result, a pure ion-ozone mixture is obtained without harmful impurities. Oxides of nitrogen and carbon, together with other harmful impurities and radiation during the synthesis of the ion-ozone mixture in the ion-ozonator installation are neutralized.
    In this case, the formation of positive ions and free electrons from atoms or molecules with an appropriate degree of ionization accompanies the origin of impact ionization. The probability of the occurrence of impact ionization is characterized by an effective ionization cross-section and depends on the kind of ionizable and bombarding particles, depending on the kinetic energy with a certain minimum (threshold) value. This minimum value is probably equal to zero and, with an increase in energy above the threshold, it first rapidly increases, reaches a maximum, and then, with corresponding energy potentials, decreases (Zhakatayeva et al., 2020; Iztayev et al., 2018; Kalinina, Naumenko, and Fatkullin, 2018).
    The energy that needs to be reported to an atom (molecule) for its ionization is called the ionization energy. If the energy transferred to ionized particles in collisions is large enough, then under certain conditions a particle can ionize in collisions. In this case, only part of the energy necessary for ionization is transferred to it, and first, the atoms (molecules) in the primary collisions are transferred to the excited state, after which shock ionization occurs and it is enough to tell the missing energy (equal to the difference between the ionization energy and the excitation energy), multistage ionization occurs. It is possible if collisions occur so often that the particle in the interval between two collisions does not have time to lose the energy received in the first of them. And also in the same cases when the particle has metastable states, and with the ability to conserve the excitation energy relatively long, multiple ionization occurs.
    Ion-ozone cavitation occurs as a result of a local critical increase in excess pressure above 4 atm and a sharp release of excess pressure to the atmospheric environment during product processing. And they can also occur either with an increase in its velocity; or with the creation of a sharp drop in excess pressure during the half-cycle of rarefaction (acoustic ion-ozone cavitation), there are other reasons for the effect. Moving with the flow to a region with a higher overpressure or during the half-compression period, the cavitation bubble filled with the ion-ozone mixture slams, emitting a shock wave with an ozone explosion, which facilitates the interaction of the ion-ozone mixture with the processed product. At the same time, bubbling, instant destruction of microorganisms, pests of products of biological origin, on the basis of quantum-physical processes in comparison with similar technologies occurs intensively, the biological value of the product increases more, resistance to external irritants is acquired, and the time of the positive effect of ion-ozone interaction on the processed product is reduced (Tursunbayeva et al., 2021; da Costa et al., 2018; Li et al., 2013; Sandhu, Manthey, and Simsek, 2011;).
    Usually, this is achieved due to a critical overpressure of 4 atm or more with a sharp release of excess pressure to atmospheric pressure, the design of hydro turbines, or by passing an ion-ozone mixture through a ring-shaped opening that has a narrow inlet and a significantly larger outlet: a forced decrease in pressure leads to ion-ozone cavitation since the ion-ozone mixture tends to the side of a larger volume (with increasing pressure, ozone acquires potential energy to explode). This method can be controlled by devices that control the size of the inlet, which allows you to adjust the process in various environments. The outer side of the mixing valves, along which the ion-ozone cavitation bubbles move in the opposite direction to cause implosion (internal explosion), is subjected to tremendous pressure and is often made of heavy-duty or rigid materials, for example, stainless steel, or stellite. This device is called the ion-ozone cavitation installation (Tursunbayeva et al., 2019; Masudin, Fernanda and Widayat, 2018; Zapevalov, Kovalenko, and Petrova, 2015).
    During ion-ozone treatment, crops are loaded into an ion-ozone cavitation unit pre-filled with an ion-ozone mixture with an ozone concentration of 0.5 mg/dm3 to 4 mg/dm3(or from 0.5 x 10–3 to 4 x 10–3 mg/cm3) and molecular ions ranging from 500 to 60,000 units/cm3. In this case, the ratio of ion concentration (units/cm3) to ozone concentration (mg/cm3) Ci/o is (1-15) x 10–6 units/mg, which is 1-15 million units/mg. Then, ion-ozone treatment is carried out for 10-20 minutes.
    In the case of ion-ozone cavitation treatment of grain after ventilation, the cavitation installation is hermetically closed, and the ion-ozone mixture is pumped into the tank until an overpressure of 2 to 4 atm is created, after which the overpressure is sharply discharged, while the ozone tends to explode. In this case, a sharp discharge of excess pressure and the power of an ozone explosion adds up. During the explosion, cavitation processes occur, in which the pores of the treated cultures increase, and the ion-ozone mixture penetrates more efficiently. At the same time, ozone destroys harmful impurities and harmful insects; and molecular oxygen ions based on quantum-physical processes increase the biological value of the product.
    After processing, wheat of various classes was ground and whole-ground flour was obtained from them. Then, it is ready to be used to prepare the dough.
    The duration of the process of making white bread from wheat flour is as follows. The preliminary stage for dough kneading takes 9 minutes, then the dough kneading takes approximately 18–22 minutes. The next step is the first proofing of the dough piece, which takes around 60–70 minutes. The duration of dough dipping is 20 minutes, then the second stage of proofing the dough takes 70 minutes. This results in an airy and uniform bread structure. Baking the bread takes 63–68 minutes; the final baking process is 10–19 minutes.
    For the manufacture prototypes, the following raw materials were used: flour from soft wheat of different classes purchased at Mibeko LLP (Kostanay, Kazakhstan), table salt (GOST R 51574-2000)50, and drinking water (SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01 )51.
    The main stage in the preparation of the dough mechanically is the churning of the semi-finished product using cavitation (excessive pressure). The purpose of the study is to study the possibility of obtaining aerated bread from low-quality low-grade flour by mechanical loosening under pressure in an ion-ozone cavitation unit.
    The physico-chemical properties, the content of amino acids, grain protein were studied. Organoleptic, physico-chemical, and microbiological indicators of bread indicators are also examined. In whole-wheat flour of different classes, the amino acid composition was determined. The following indicators were determined in finished bread products using innovative technologies: organoleptic properties (GOST R 58233-2018), humidity (GOST 21094-75), acidity (GOST 5670-96), porosity (GOST 5669-96), and shelf life (GOST 8227-56) of finished products. Organoleptic indicators determine the following results: the appearance of the finished bread, the color of the crusts, the nature of porosity, elasticity, and the chewiness of the crumb. Six experts participated in the survey to determine the organoleptic indicators of bread and were evaluated on a 5-point scale.
    The experiment was carried out in 3 repetitions. Taking into account the presence of significant coefficients of pairwise interactions in many equations (i.e. the nonlinearity of the objective function and quality assessment criteria), the search for optimal processing modes was carried out using non-linear programming methods –Newton’s method included in the "Search for a solution" procedure in MS Office Excel.

Results and Discussion

    As is known, for the correct assessment of the nutritional value of wheat as a grain, the amino acid composition of proteins and the balance of their amino acid composition are of great importance. Moreover, even the insignificant effect of proteolytic enzymes promote the hydrolysis of proteins with the formation of peptides and amino acids, therefore, the amino acid composition of wheat grain changes. The largest amounts of whole wheat grains contain leucine (75.2 ± 0.7 mg/1 g protein), phenylalanine (52.1 ± 0.6 mg/1 g protein), and glutamic acid + glutamine (219.2 ± 4 mg/1 g of protein), which is typical for this type of wheat.
    The smallest values can be noted for lysine (19.8 ± 0.3 mg/1 g protein), tryptophan (10.1 ± 0.3 mg/1 g protein), and threonine (18.7 ± 0.3 mg/1 g protein)
    From the studied wheat samples of different classes, bread products were obtained using innovative technologies from whole-grain flour.
   To achieve this goal, samples of bread from wheat flour of different classes according to traditional formulations using water for technical purposes and cavitated water using ion-ozone processing were developed. 
    The traditional recipe for baked bread with a yield of 859 g includes the following ingredients - wheat flour: 465 g, pressed yeast - 7.5 g, salt - 6.5 g, and water - 380 ml. Bread without the use of innovative methods using wheat of the 1st grade was taken as a control sample. The appearance of the obtained products can be estimated in Figure 2.