Published at : 04 Apr 2023
Volume : IJtech Vol 14, No 2 (2023)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v14i2.6009
|Efim Burlutsky||1. Kazan State Power Engineering University, 51 Krasnoselskaya St., Kazan 420066, Russia, 2. Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, 2 Lenina St., Almetyevsk, 423450, Russia|
|Denis Balzamov||Kazan State Power Engineering University, 51 Krasnoselskaya St., Kazan 420066, Russia|
|Veronika Bronskaya||1. Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx St., Kazan 420015, Russia, 2. Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., Kazan, 420008, Russia|
|Olga Kharitonova||Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx St., Kazan 420015, Russia|
|Liliya Khairullina||Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., Kazan, 420008, Russia|
|Olga Solovyeva||Kazan State Power Engineering University, 51 Krasnoselskaya St., Kazan 420066, Russia|
The absorption of heat by rocks is accompanied by an
increase in the kinetic energy of molecules and atoms and is recorded by a
change in rock temperature. The thermal properties of rocks characterize the
ability to transfer and absorb heat and change their size when the temperature
rises. The main thermal properties of rocks are thermal conductivity, heat
capacity, linear thermal expansion, and thermal volumetric expansion. In this
paper, the influence of temperature effects on the thermal properties of reservoirs
– the coefficient of temperature conductivity, specific heat capacity, and
thermal conductivity is studied using the samples of oil-saturated reservoirs
from the good number 19Bp of the Upper Uplift of Sotnikovsky deposit. The
dependence of the thermal properties of the core material on temperature was
revealed using a number of laboratory experiments. The results of these studies
contribute to improving the reliability of data on the relationship of thermal
properties with other physical properties of oil-saturated reservoirs and can
be used to improve the efficiency of the development of fields of super-viscous
Core material; Core material temperature; Thermal conductivity; Thermal conductivity coefficient; Specific heat capacity
The degree of study of the thermal field of the Earth
and the Earth's crust is still low, and it is incomparable with the modern
results of studies of seismic, magnetic, gravitational and other physical
fields of our planet. This is largely due to the insufficient level of
development of thermal petrophysics (thermal physics of rocks) underlying the
study of natural and artificial thermal fields in the subsurface. To solve such
problems as modeling of sedimentary basins and oil and gas bearing systems,
search and exploration of hydrocarbon deposits, design of thermal methods of
production of high-viscosity oils, interpretation of results of thermometry in
wells, determination of heat flux density from the bowels, etc. requires reliable
database on thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity, the specific heat
capacity of rocks (Abed and Yakhlef,
2020; Adam, 2009).
The situation is complicated by the fact that rocks, as an object of thermophysical research, have characteristic features, consideration of which is necessary when creating methods and equipment for determining their thermal properties. First, this is their essential heterogeneity, multiphase (saturation of solid rock skeleton by various pore fluids, such as formation water, gas, oil and their various combinations), dependence on thermodynamic conditions of occurrence (rock, formation pressure, temperature).
It should be noted that a significant part of the core from shallow deposits of extra-viscous oils is weakly consolidated and loose samples, which requires a special research methodology (which, until recently, was practically absent).
The variety of problems solved in mining thermal physics also determines the difference in the methods used for experimental determination of the thermal characteristics of rocks (Alas and Ali, 2019).
The choice of methods is influenced by many factors, including the purpose of the study, the range of changes in the thermal properties of rocks, different degrees of consolidation (from unconsolidated sedimentary reservoirs of ultra-viscous oils to hard low-porous rocks of the crystalline basement), the degree of sample saturation, etc. The depth of sampling determines the values of pressures at which it is necessary to study the rocks. The nature of the thermal influence determines the temperature range of research (Balzamov et al., 2020b).
The depletion of easily recoverable oil reserves leads to the need to involve in the development of increasingly complex facilities containing hard-to-recover oil reserves (HTR reserves). At the moment, the trends are that due to a decrease in the number of reserves, the lifting of traditional fossil fuels will be supplemented by the development of unconventional sources of raw materials (shale oil and gas, high-viscosity oils, bitumen, bituminous sand oil, coal methane, gas hydrates, etc.).
The world reserves of natural bitumen are estimated at more than 800 billion tons. At the same time, Russia is one of the leaders in reserves, a third of which is located on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan.
The extraction of bituminous oil requires an unconventional, unique approach. There are various ways to develop deposits of heavy oils and natural bitumen, which differ in technological and economic characteristics.
The efficiency of the
lifting of SVO and natural bitumen using thermal methods largely depends on the
methodological base, based on laboratory studies to determine data on the
thermophysical properties of rocks (Ibragimova et
al., 2017; Ismagilova et al., 2016; Valeeva
et al., 2013). In addition, they are necessary for work
to determine the speed of advance of the heat transfer agent front, the
assessment of thermal resources of deposits and the design of development
systems. All of the above determines the relevance of the topic of this work.
The LFA 467 laser burst device was used to determine the temperature conductivity. An infrared detector is used to measure the temperature increase from the back of the sample as a function of time. The measurement of temperature conductivity, specific heat capacity allows (with a known or additionally measured volumetric density) to calculate the thermal conductivity of the sample under study (Balzamov et al., 2020a; Petrov et al., 2019; Ganeeva et al., 2014).
To determine the specific heat capacity of the rock, a differential scanning calorimeter DS 204 HP was used in work. The essence of the method consists in measuring the heat of processes and the specific heat capacity of substances through the heat flux - the derivative of heat over time (differential). Heat flows are measured simultaneously by the temperature difference at two points of the measuring system (Balzamov et al., 2020c; Mirgorodskaya et al., 2018; Gabdrakhmanov et al., 2015). The determination of specific heat is carried out by a special program NETZSCH TA4_5.
The results of this study will optimize the methods of lifting SVO. In this paper, the influence of temperature on the thermal properties of the core material is studied – the coefficient of temperature conductivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal conductivity, the purpose of which is to analyze the influence of temperature on the thermophysical properties of the core material. The temperature conductivity is measured on the LFA-467 device, and the specific heat capacity - on the DSC-204 HP device, the thermal conductivity is determined by mathematical calculation. The dependence of the thermal properties of the core material on temperature was revealed using a number of laboratory experiments. The results of these studies can be used to improve the efficiency of developing super-viscous oil fields.
The LFA 467 incorporates sophisticated equipment and simple software to provide fast, accurate and safe measurements. The LFA 467 is based on the laser flash method according to international standards ASTM E-1461, DIM EN 821 and DIN 30905.
An infrared detector measures the temperature increase on the sample's backside as a time function. The measurement of thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity allows (with known or additionally measured bulk density) to calculate the thermal conductivity of the sample under study.
Mathematical analysis of the measured temperature dependence on time allows us to determine the thermal diffusivity ?. The analysis is performed by a special program using a set of differential mathematical models for various applications.
Figure 1 Holder for thermal conductivity measurements
When the sample is loaded, the measuring cell LFA 467 is opened, and the samples (round or square) are placed in the corresponding sample holder. The upper flap of the furnace is put back in place with the extraction device, and the measuring cell is closed.
Start the measurement. Start the measurement by using the NETZSCH software. Determine the basic settings for the measurement. Set the gas parameters. Set the holder to be used. Mark the desired sample position in the left window (the sample will be marked green) and define the parameters of the respective sample:
- Sample properties
- Stain, layer properties
- Template for measurements
- Thermophysical properties
Temperature program. Select the start and end temperature of the measurement and determine the temperature step value (in our work, this corresponds to 50°C).
Set the required interval for analysis. The calculation interval should be approximately 10-12 half-periods.
ensure correct estimation of the calculation interval, both curves (the
original signal curve and its smoothing) should be combined (Figure 2 see on
Figure 3 Scheme of measurements by DSC 204 HP method
(F - furnace (heater), S - sample, R - standard, TF, TmS, TmR - temperatures of furnace and junction of differential thermocouple of sample and standard, FFS, FFR - heat fluxes)
The essence of the method consists in measuring the heat of processes and the specific heat capacity of substances through the heat flow - the derivative of heat over time (differential). Heat fluxes are measured by the temperature difference in two points of the measuring system at one point in time. Measurements are carried out both in isothermal conditions and in dynamic mode with a programmable change in the shell's temperature (heater).
Figure 5 Dynamics of changes in the coefficient of specific heat capacity at a depth of 196 m
Figure 6 Dynamics of changes in the coefficient of specific heat capacity at a depth of 196.1 m
Figure 7 Dependence of specific heat capacity on temperature
Where · - 195.9 m; · - 196.0 m; · - 196.1 m
Figure 8 Dynamics of changes in
the temperature conductivity coefficient at a depth of 195.9 m
Figure 9 Dynamics of changes in the temperature conductivity coefficient at a depth of 196 m
Figure 10 Dynamics of changes in the temperature conductivity coefficient at a depth of 196.1 m
Where · - 195.9 m; · - 196.0 m; · - 196.1 m.
The analytical study of thermal conductivity is reduced to the study of spatio-temporal changes in temperature and specific heat capacity, i.e., to find equation 2.
When calculating the thermal conductivity according to the formula using the data of temperature conductivity and specific heat capacity, the following results were obtained (Table 1).
Table 1 Defined
values of thermal conductivity of core material samples temperature
Name of indicators
Intervals of sampling of core material
Thermal conductivity, W/m*K
Figures 6-8 show the direct relationship between the coefficient of thermal conductivity and
Figure 12 Dynamics of changes in the thermal conductivity coefficient at a depth of 196.1 m
Figure 13 Dynamics of changes in the thermal conductivity coefficient at a depth of 196.1 m
Figure 14 Dynamics of changes in the thermal conductivity coefficient at a depth of 196.1 m
Figure 15 Dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature
Where · - 195.9 m; · - 196.0 m; · - 196.1 m
According to the results of the research, it was found that the coefficient of thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in the temperature of the core material, and the coefficient of specific heat capacity increases with an increase in the temperature of the unconsolidated core. The highest values of specific heat are observed at a temperature of 225°C. The coefficient of thermal conductivity also increases with an increase in the temperature of the core material. The highest thermal conductivity values are observed at a temperature of 225°C. The increase of the thermal conductivity of the core material with the temperature change can be explained by the fact that with increasing temperature, the thermal conductivity of the medium that fills the gaps between the grains increases (the core material can be attributed to granular materials), and the heat transfer by radiation inside the granular massif also increases. The thermophysical properties of the core material obtained during laboratory studies can be applied in designing and optimizing methods for lifting viscous oil with thermal effects on the productive reservoir.
The study was carried out within the framework of a scientific project of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) No 21-79-10406 (https://www.rscf.ru/project/21-79-10406/).
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