|Soegeng Riyadi||Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of Marine Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|Wasis Dwi Aryawan||Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of Marine Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|I Ketut Aria Pria Utama||Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of Marine Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
the issue of energy efficiency in the maritime transportation sector has been
strongly associated with the decreasing use of fossil energy and greenhouse gas
emissions. Crew boats are one of the ship modes which consumes a lot of fuel in
maritime transportation. This affects the number of exhaust gases released into
the atmosphere. A study into the estimation of crew boat resistance was carried
out experimentally using a towing tank, numerically using a CFD methodology,
and then compared with Savitsky's method. Measurements were taken in calm
waters under even keel and trim scenarios, considering load variation had been
adjusted for. Determining the correct load position affected the LCG
(Longitudinal Center of Gravity) and
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Crew boat; Energy efficiency; Loading condition; Resistance; Semi-planning.
Crew boats are very important to the shipping
industry as they provide the connection between a base onshore and offshore
installations, such as drilling rigs, or designated anchorages that serve
hundreds of ships at a time (Karanassos, 2016). Companies that operate fleets
of offshore structure platforms need boats to transport employees and operators
to and from the platforms regularly. These crew boats are also employed for
modest constructions or minor changes on the platform thus they are utilized to
transport teams of workers and their equipment (El-Reedy, 2021).
Currently, energy efficiency in the transportation sector is an absolute necessity. The contribution of energy demands in the transportation sector is about 21% of the total energy needed in the world, whereas sea transportation energy contributes approx. 6% of the total transportation energy demand (British Petroleum, 2020). The impact of the energy used in maritime transportation is directly proportional to the production of exhaust gases and pollution, which are both current problems in the environment. Crew boats compete directly with helicopters, therefore they are built with a high-speed planning hull and lightweight aluminium to overcome resistance (Latorre, 2003) and some crew boats are intended to carry passengers and cargo while operating in a semi-planning mode. Crew boat as the object of this research is a type of marine transportation that focuses its operations on speed and energy efficiency. Energy efficiency in marine transportation is very dependent on operational optimization among the hull of the ship, engine, propulsion system, and the routes.
The current study has provided a computational and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of a crew boat under a variety of loading situations and speeds to validate and verify the results. The great degree of agreement between model testing and CFD predictions for total ship resistance in calm water has resulted in a high degree of confidence in the CFD results. The impact of longitudinal and vertical load variations was investigated on a model scale, with the findings of the tank test serving as confirmation of the results of the CFD output model construction. With the speed at Fr. 0.117, 0.467, and 0.701, the discrepancies differed, respectively 3.22%, 4.48%, and -2.04%. The initial conditions for the LC1-LC2, LC3-LC4, and LC5-LC6 pairings were 0.40 deg., 0.69 deg., and 0.21 deg., respectively, due to the influence of weight on the crew boat. There were three sets of CT lines since each pair of LC groups produced comparable CT. The differences to LC1 used as a reference are 0.0136 and -0.0172 at Fr=0.117, and 0.0039 and -0.0049 at Fr=0.701. The impact of changing placement has been less as Fr increases. At Fr=0117, the effect of VCG has changed in each LC with the same LCG having the least effect, 0.059% to 0.085%. The optimal condition for investigating operational speed, Fr=0.700, was obtained in the LC5-LC6 pair since CT is lowered between 0.908% and 3.062% of the reference LC. This may also be observed in the LC pair's wave elevation for the smaller spray wave and stern wave. A similar effect may be achieved by using hydrostatic pressure spray. Consequently, it was discovered that shifting the position of the crew boat to the front resulted in less resistance than shifting the position to the back of the ship. The implementation of the investigation findings has been enabling the ship's crew to make better decisions about how to set the ship's speed and load position. Thus, by implementing this, it can serve as an operational guide for reducing total ship resistance and hence exhaust gas emissions.
The authors wished to thank the Ministry of
Research, Technology, and BRIN for the Doctoral Program Research Grant of the
year 2020 under contract number 1238/PKS/ITS/2020. The authors also thanked Mr.
Langgeng Condro, Mr. Achmad Sutiyo, and Mr. Rudie Aminudin for their help in experimental
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