Published at : 19 Apr 2021
Volume : IJtech
Vol 12, No 2 (2021)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v12i2.4350
Adnan Haider Yusef Sa'd  1. Faculty of Computer and IT, AlRazi University, Sana'a, Yemen 2. School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 14300, Malaysia 
Hisham Haider Yusef Saad  Faculty of Computer and IT, AlRazi University, Sana'a, Yemen 
Aeizaal Azman Abd Wahab  School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 14300, Malaysia 
The biorthogonal
codes for embedding SideInformation (SI) in databased blind SLM (BSLM)
proposed in Joo et al. (2012) produce better bit error rate (BER) and SI error
rate (SIER) performance compared to binary codes. However, the authors do not
provide details for code generation; instead, they list some codes with a
length of
Blind SLM; OFDM; PAPR; Side Information; SLM
Orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (OFDM) is a transmission technique with a high
datatransmission rate and can cope with severe channel conditions. Moreover,
unlike other techniques that utilize parallelism for increasing transmission
speed, the orthogonal nature of OFDM uses bandwidth more efficiently. OFDM has
been adopted by many standards for its advantages over other techniques, such
as single carrier or frequency division multiplexing (FDM). Examples of
wellknown standards include DSL, 802.11a, WiFiMax, and LTE (Han
and Lee, 2005; Jiang and Wu, 2008; Rahmatallah and Mohan, 2013).
Thanks to advances in digital signal processing (DSP) technology, OFDM has become more widely applicable and popular. However, OFDM suffers from the major problem of having high signal peaks. The high peaks problem, often called the high peaktoaverage power ratio (PAPR) problem, is a result of the summation of multiple subcarrier signals due to the existence of a parallelism concept in transmission. The high peaks of an OFDM signal cannot be amplified linearly using a normal power amplifier (PA); doing so corrupts the signal, as there are high peaks in the non?linear region of PA. Thus, as using normal PA with OFDM introduces inband and outband radiation, OFDM requires a very complex PA design to maintain linearity. Mathematically, PAPR is calculated as follows:


where
Many methods have been proposed to alleviate the high PAPR problem; each
one has advantages and disadvantages. Examples of PAPR reduction techniques
found in the literature are clipping (Juwono
et al., 2013), partial transmit
sequence (PTS) (Müller
et al., 1997; Müller and Huber, 1997), selected mapping
(SLM) (Müller
et al., 1997; Sa'd and Wahab, 2019), tone
injection (TI) (Wattanasuwakull
and Benjapolakul, 2005), tone reservation
(TR) (Park
et al., 2003), interleaving (Rahmatallah
and Mohan, 2013), and hybrid (Jones
et al., 1994; Wang and Chen, 2014; Sa’d et al., 2016; Wahab and Sa’d, 2017;
Liang et al., 2019).
SLM is a wellknown distortionless PAPR reduction technique; however,
it requires sending side information (SI) for the receiver to be able to
retrieve the original signal. To solve this problem, many blind SLM (BSLM)
schemes have been proposed in the literature (Jayalath
and Tellambura, 2002; Pezeshk and Khalaj, 2002; Baxley and Zhou, 2005; Jayalath
and Tellambura, 2005; Han et al., 2006; Chen and Zhou, 2006;Alsusa and Yang, 2008;
Han et al., 2008; Joo et al., 2009; Le Goff et al., 2009; Hong et al., 2010;
Park et al., 2011;Li et al., 2011; Badran and ElHelw, 2011;Eom et al., 2012;
Joo et al., 2012; ElHelw et al., 2012; Hong et al., 2013; Ji and Ren, 2013; Elhelw
and Badran, 2015; Ji et al., 2015; Yoon et al., 2018; Goel and Sidhu, 2020). BSLM, in general,
embeds SI in an OFDM signal by utilizing noise margins instead of dedicated
subcarriers to eliminate data rate waste due to SI. While there are different
types of BSLM, the databased BSLM proposed in Joo et
al. (2012) can maintain a similar PAPR and an almost
similar BER as conventional SLM without manipulating or imposing restrictions
on channel estimation methods, providing that the number of subcarriers of OFDM
is not very small. SI is embedded onto the phase of data subcarriers by making
a unique and distinguished phase disparity between all the possible iterations
of data manipulation, and this is done over all data subcarriers. To improve SI
error rate (SIER) performance, phase disparity forms are constructed using a
biorthogonal vector with a code length of
This
paper is organized as follows. Section 2 explains the data?based BSLM in Joo et al. (2012). Section 3 discusses SI embeddingcode generation
and explains the proposed maximal Hamming distance code generation method.
Finally, a conclusion is drawn in Section 4.
Two
new algorithms were proposed for generating maximal Hamming distance codes of
This
research was supported partially by Research University Grant, Universiti Sains
Malaysia (1001/PELECT/8014160).
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