• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 11, No 5 (2020)

Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, an Anti-Inflammatory Agent, on the Surface Characteristics of a Plaster of Paris – CaCO3 Hydrogel for Bone Substitution in Biomedicine

Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, an Anti-Inflammatory Agent, on the Surface Characteristics of a Plaster of Paris – CaCO3 Hydrogel for Bone Substitution in Biomedicine

Title: Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, an Anti-Inflammatory Agent, on the Surface Characteristics of a Plaster of Paris – CaCO3 Hydrogel for Bone Substitution in Biomedicine
Anne Handrini Dewi, Dedy Kusuma Yulianto, Ika Dewi Ana, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Widowati Siswomihardjo

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Cite this article as:
Dewi, A.H., Yulianto, D.K., Ana, I.D., Rochmadi, Siswomihardjo, W.,  2020. Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, an Anti-Inflammatory Agent, on the Surface Characteristics of a Plaster of Paris – CaCO3 Hydrogel for Bone Substitution in Biomedicine . International Journal of Technology. Volume 11(5), pp. 963-973

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Anne Handrini Dewi Department of Dental Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Dedy Kusuma Yulianto Department of Dental Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Ika Dewi Ana Department of Dental Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Rochmadi Rochmadi Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Widowati Siswomihardjo Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, an Anti-Inflammatory Agent, on the Surface Characteristics of a Plaster of Paris – CaCO3 Hydrogel for Bone Substitution in Biomedicine

Combining an anti-inflammatory agent derived from a plant essential oil, such as cinnamaldehyde, with bioabsorbable and osteoconductive material as a bone substitute is a challenge in biomedical technology. In this study, cinnamaldehyde, a good anti-inflammatory agent with an aromatic ?, ?-unsaturated aldehyde derived from cinnamon, was loaded in composites of plaster of Paris (POP) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) hydrogel as a bone substitute. However, during blood–biomaterial interactions, which start after surgical implantation, blood protein adsorption to the biomaterial surface occurs prior to interaction with host cells. Therefore, before a device is ready for implantation, the influence of cinnamaldehyde on the property of the composite, especially its surface characteristics, needs to be examined. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on the surface topography, contact angle, and surface roughness of a POP–CaCO3 hydrogel scaffold. The results indicate that cinnamaldehyde increased the contact angle and surface roughness of the POP hydrogel, which seemed to be homogenous on all surfaces.

Bone substitute; CaCO3 hydrogel; Cinnamaldehyde; POP; Surface characteristics

Introduction

A variety of ceramics have been used to treat bone defects (Anzelme, 2000; Ooms et al., 2002; Orsini et al., 2004; Chao et al., 2005). One of them, calcium sulfate (CS) or plaster of Paris (POP), known to be a resorbable material, has shown the ability to enhance bone regeneration (Cirotteau, 2001). However, a disadvantage of using CS is related to its fast resorption rate during the osteogenesis process, making it unable to provide a long-term three-dimensional framework (Fenaroli, 2016; Dewi et al., 2013; Dewi et al., 2015). To solve this problem, in previous studies, biocompatible and osteoconductive hydrogel calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been incorporated into CS formulations (Gomes et al., 2011; Dewi et al., 2015).

From a biomedical perspective, the implantation of medical devices often leads to a foreign body reaction related to  the  accumulation  and  activation of inflammatory cells in the implant area. Although there is an increased risk of infection after bone implant area. Although there is an increased risk of infection after bone implant surgery, compared to bone, soft tissues are generally considered to show a more severe inflammatory response (Hallab et al., 2001; Higueras et al., 2015).

In view of the phenomenon, it would be advantageous if cinnamaldehyde (CA), previously described as an essential oil and known to be an anti-inflammatory agent (Jamali et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2010, Jakethia et al., 2010), could be incorporated into an implant device. Interesting results have been found when CA was loaded in a PLGA hydrogel (Gomes et al., 2011) and a CaCO3 hydrogel (Dewi et al., 2013). It was found that the incorporation of CA is beneficial as an anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agent (Dewi et al., 2015; Dewi et al., 2017). However, since CA can be both lipophilic and hydrophilic, this can affect the mechanical and surface properties of a composite. Additionally, surface properties, especially surface chemistry, hydrophilicity, and surface topography, influence the interactions between cells and substrates in the environment surrounding implanted material (Pal et al., 2009) because in a living host, blood plasma is the first component to contact implant material. Further rapid adsorption of plasma protein occurs on the surface of biomaterial prior to cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation (Jimbo et al., 2010).

Surface topography and hydrophilicity can influence the attachment of cells in different ways. Hydrophilicity, a result of surface chemistry, is correlated to the wettability of an implant surface (Gittens et al., 2014). A material is categorized as hydrophilic when the contact angle between the material and a water droplet is <90° (Yulianto and Margareta, 2014). Hydrophilic surfaces are important for promoting a good environment for bone formation (Boyan et al., 2017). Additionally, smooth surfaces allow cells to attach and spread more than rough surfaces, and high wettability combined with a microrough surface stimulates more anti-inflammatory cytokine release by macrophages than a hydrophilic but smooth surface (Hotchkiss et al., 2016).

Apart from other challenges in the biomedical area (Elfani and Putra, 2013; Krisanti et al., 2019; Sahlan et al., 2019; Barleany et al., 2020), based on the above framework, it is known that surface characteristics are critical for biological cascade upon implantation. In other words, the success of an implant depends on the surfaces of the materials and cell interaction. Therefore, it is important to investigate surface characteristic data. The overall objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of CA-loaded CaCO3 hydrogel incorporated into POP on surface topography, contact angle, and surface roughness.


Conclusion

    Surface properties, especially chemistry, hydrophilicity, and topography, are known to influence the interaction between cells and substrates in the environment surrounding implanted materials. This study demonstrated that CA as an anti-inflammatory agent can be successfully loaded into CaCO3 hydrogel prior to the incorporation of the hydrogel into POP to form POP–CaCO3 hydrogel composites. The results indicated that adding CA to a hydrogel system increased the contact angle, but it was still <90o (i.e. hydrophilic). The surface roughness of the POP–CaCO3 hydrogel was also increased. Increased contact angle and surface roughness may influence blood protein adsorption and cell attachment; therefore, we propose carrying out investigations of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo animal studies in our laboratory.

Acknowledgement

This study was financed by the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada Grant Aid, contract number 6031/KG/PP/2014-2019 as a part of the fulfillment of Anne Handrini Dewi’s PhD. The publication of this study is part of the World Class University Program supported by the Indonesian Ministry of Research and Technology/National Agency for Research and Innovation managed by Institut Teknologi Bandung (award number 1913G/I1.B04.2/SPP/2020).

Supplementary Material
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R2-MME-4313-20201024060917.pdf Highlighted Revised Manuscript in PDF
R2-MME-4313-20201024061032.pdf Cover Letter Including Responses to Reviewers in PDF
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