• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 3 (2021)

Formulation of Food Ingredients (Peanut Flour, Egg Yolks, Egg Whites, and Guar Gum) to the Characteristics of Gluten-Free Noodles

Formulation of Food Ingredients (Peanut Flour, Egg Yolks, Egg Whites, and Guar Gum) to the Characteristics of Gluten-Free Noodles

Title: Formulation of Food Ingredients (Peanut Flour, Egg Yolks, Egg Whites, and Guar Gum) to the Characteristics of Gluten-Free Noodles
Heny Herawati, Elmi Kamsiati, Sunarmani

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Cite this article as:
Herawati, H., Kamsiati, E.Sunarmani., 2021. Formulation of Food Ingredients (Peanut Flour, Egg Yolks, Egg Whites, and Guar Gum) to the Characteristics of Gluten-Free Noodles. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(3), pp. 602-612

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Heny Herawati Indonesia Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No 12, Cimanggu, Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Elmi Kamsiati Indonesia Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No 12, Cimanggu, Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Sunarmani Indonesia Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No 12, Cimanggu, Bogor 16124, Indonesia
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Abstract
Formulation of Food Ingredients (Peanut Flour, Egg Yolks, Egg Whites, and Guar Gum) to the Characteristics of Gluten-Free Noodles

Noodle-processing technology commonly uses primary raw material in the form of wheat flour. One opportunity to increase the value of local flour is processing it into gluten-free noodle products, which can be consumed by people with celiac diseases. Some natural ingredients and food additives can be used to improve the characteristics of gluten-free noodles, including peanut flour, egg yolks, egg whites, and guar gum. This study aimed to analyze the effect of several types of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of gluten-free noodle products derived from cassava flour. It was designed using a complete randomized design and proximate analysis results were analyzed statistically with SPSS 2.1 to determine the difference between treatments. ANOVA analysis results were analyzed, with completely randomized design method and the results were analyzed using Duncan’s test. Based on the results of proximate and energy analysis, differences in treatment affected the quality of moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate content, and energy, which were significantly different. Cassava noodles added with peanut flour had a higher protein content compared to the controls, with the addition of egg yolks, egg whites, or hydrocolloids. The fat content of cassava noodles added by 5% egg yolk was higher than that of other cassava noodles. The addition of egg whites with a composition of 2% or 5% produced an RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer)  profile that did not form peak viscosity at the optimum temperature and hot-paste viscosity. Based on SEM analysis on cassava noodles, the microstructure profile showed the occurrence of starch gelatinization.

Cassava; Characteristic; Food ingredient; Gluten-free; Noodle

Introduction

Noodle-processing technology, in general, uses primary raw material in the form of wheat flour derived from wheat. Noodles can be processed using raw materials from flour mixed with other local food ingredients, such as corn flour (Shobha et al., 2015), potato flour (Pu et al., 2017), banana flour (Charoenkul et al., 2011), and sweet potatoes (Ibitoye et al., 2013). One component of flour that affects its quality is the starch contained therein. As a raw material, starch should be able to tolerate a broad range of processing techniques to fulfill the demands of modern and highly dynamic food industries to create diverse products (Maulani and Hidayat, 2016). One opportunity is to process gluten-free noodles without using wheat flour but with raw materials, such as cassava flour. Cassava grows in all habitats without the need for a special cultivation system and contains starch, which has strong elasticity. This crop represents one of the primary sources of food for Indonesian people, along with other staples such as rice, sago, and corn (Hawashi et al., 2019).

Characteristics of noodles that use raw materials from cassava flour, in general, have quite good elasticity because of the gluten content contained therein. Some gluten-free noodle-processing technology using local food ingredients is carried out by Purwandari et al. (2014a; 2014b), Sabbatini et al. (2014), Garcia et al. (2016), Herawati and Sunarmani (2016), Mojiono et al. (2016), Rajendran (2019), and Herawati et al. (2019a; 2019b). One opportunity to increase the added value of cassava flour is to process it into gluten-free noodle products. Noodles without gluten  is easily broken and has a less elastic texture than noodles from wheat flour. One way to increase the added value of the product is by adding other ingredients that can improve the quality of the noodles produced. One technology for producing gluten-free noodles uses extrusion technology. Several studies using extrusion technology have been carried out (Muhandri et al., 2011; Muhandri, 2012; Herawati et al., 2019a; 2019b).

Additional ingredients can be added to improve the quality of gluten-free noodles. Padalino et al. (2011) added monoglyceride by 1% to improve the quality of gluten-free spaghetti. Meanwhile, Garcia et al. (2016) added egg flour to the process of making gluten-free noodles. In making a gluten-free paste, using eggs improves texture characteristics (Schoenlechner et al., 2010). Egg protein has a positive effect on cooking quality, increases elasticity, and reduces the cooking loss of spaghetti (Matsuo et al., 1972). Most gluten-free products are produced with recipes based on flours and starches with the addition of different types of hydrocolloids. For this reason, gluten-free foods have poor quality and low nutritional value and lack variety with lower palatability (Lerner, 2010; Levent, 2017). Some potential additional ingredients that can be used to improve the characteristics of noodles from cassava flour ingredients include peanut flour, egg yolks, egg whites, and hydrocolloids, namely guar gum. These additives are known to have high protein and fat content. Protein can increase the elasticity of the added product.

Food ingredients can be derived from raw materials immediately, such as eggs or peanut flour. Food ingredients can also come from food additives derived from the hydrocolloid class. This study aimed to analyze the effect of several types of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of gluten-free noodle products derived from cassava flour.


Conclusion

    Adding the types and concentrations of additional ingredients could increase the levels of protein and fat from the noodles produced. Noodles with the addition of peanut flour had a higher protein content compared to those with other treatments. Meanwhile, egg-yolk noodles produced a higher fat content. Adding eggs and hydrocolloids increased the amorphous phase of the resulting XRD results. Various noodles with several types of food additives formed a peak at an angle of 2? at 15°, 17°, 18°, 20°, and 23°. The microstructure profile of gluten-free noodles showed that the starch granules began to break down and gelatinization occurred when SEM results indicated that the starch granules had started to break apart and join one another. For further research, a technoeconomic feasibility analysis can be done by adding several more ingredients to produce optimal quality gluten-free noodles.

Acknowledgement

    Thank you to The Indonesia Agency for Agricultural Research and Development for funding this research activity through the Indonesia Center of Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development Unit. Also, the second author is thankful to the first author for guidance during the research and writing process of this paper.

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