|Yudi Nugraha Thaha||Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences PUSPIPTEK Building 470, Tangerang Selatan 15343, Indonesia|
|Nono Darsono||Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences PUSPIPTEK Building 470, Tangerang Selatan 15343, Indonesia|
|Muhammad Satrio Utomo||Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences PUSPIPTEK Building 470, Tangerang Selatan 15343, Indonesia|
While having excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability properties, magnesium alloys have been widely known to exhibit low corrosion resistance, especially in an acidic environment. The partially protective layer of Mg(OH)2 plays an important role in the corrosion behavior of magnesium, while a phosphate and fluoride conversion film enhances the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. The comparative study of electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Mg-5Zn with different media was performed in 1% (NH4)3PO4 and 1% NaF. The effect of malonic and succinic acid on the corrosion behaviour of Mg-5Zn was also analyzed. The back scattering electron mode of scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of Mg-5Zn alloys. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the potentiodynamic polarization curve were employed to study the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Mg-5Zn. It was found that the presence of malonic and succinic acid decreases film resistance and enhances the electron transfer of Mg-5Zn in 1% (NH4)3PO4and 1% NaF. A higher Mg-5Zn dissolution rate was observed in a binary mixture of 1% malonic acid and 1% succinic acid with 1% (NH4)3PO4 and 1% NaF in comparison with Mg-5Zn in 1% (NH4)3PO4 and 1% NaF.
Corrosion; Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; Mg-5Zn; Potentiodynamic polarization
Due to high stiffness and lightness to weight ratio and biocompatibility, magnesium and its alloys have received considerable attention in relation to biodegradable metallic implants (Virtanen, 2011). In energy storage applications, magnesium-based alloys and magnesium-based MgH2 composites are potentially applied to hydrogen storage materials (Zulkarnain et al., 2016). Magnesium can be used to modify the hydrogen physisorption of SWCNTs (Supriyadi et al., 2016). Magnesium possesses low electrochemical potential in a galvanic series, which makes magnesium and its alloys highly reactive with a low corrosion resistance (Song & Atrens, 1999). The corrosion resistance of magnesium depends on the microstructure, grain boundary, phase distribution, and actual physiological environment (Pardo et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008; Nayak et al., 2016). The pH value of physiological fluid has a considerable effect on the corrosion rate of magnesium. Mg tends to corrode faster in acidic environment or pH with a neutral value to form Mg+2 (Song & Atrens, 1999). In an alkaline solution of pH 11, Mg(OH)2 film is produced. A decrease in the corrosion rate of magnesium, Mg tends to corrode faster in acidic environment or pH with a neutral value to form Mg+2 (Song & Atrens, 1999). In an alkaline solution of pH 11, Mg(OH)2 film is produced. A decrease in the pH solution and the presence of chloride ion destabilize Mg(OH)2 film (Song & Atrens, 1999). Recent works related to the electrochemical corrosion process of the ultrahigh purity of Mg-5Zn and the corrosion mechanism in magnesium alloys have been published (Song et al., 2012; Shi et al., 2015).
It was reported that phosphate and fluoride conversion film enhances the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy (Chong & Shih, 2003; Chiu et al., 2007). The partially protective layer of Mg(OH)2 plays an important role in the corrosion behavior of magnesium. A thin hydroxide layer on the magnesium surface is formed when magnesium and its alloys are exposed to water (Song & Atrens, 1999).
Interfacial kinetic studies of the metal release between magnesium alloys and their physiological environment are important to control the corrosion process in bio-electrochemical applications of magnesium alloy. In the human body, succinic acid is produced in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Malonic acid functions as a competitive inhibitor of succisinate dehidrogenase in the respiratory electron transport chain. Succinic acid and malonic acid are important parts of the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle. Succinic and malonic acid play important roles in ATP production in the mitochondria (Chong & Shih, 2003; Akram, 2014). In cells, succinate can be released from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytoplasm through plasma membrane transporters. For damaged membrane cells and cell death, succinate can be released from the cytoplasm to the outer layer of the cell and can decrease the local pH of the cell membrane and the solution interface. Under pathophysiological conditions, succinate has been observed in the area of inflammation (Connors et al., 2018).
Mg-5Zn corrosion simulation in (NH4)3PO4 and NaF 1% with the presence of malonic acid and succinic acid as a biochemical interference is not reported in any previous literature study. In this article, the comparative study of the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg-5Zn in (NH4)3PO4 and NaF 1% and the effects of malonic acid and succinic acid on the corrosion behavior of Mg-5Zn in (NH4)3PO4 and NaF are reported.
In this work, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of powder metallurgy Mg-5Zn was examined in a binary mixture of 1% (NH4)3PO4 with 1% succinic acid and with 1% malonic acid and a binary mixture of 1% NaF with 1% succinic acid and with 1% malonic acid. The back scattering electron mode of scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of Mg-5Zn alloys. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the electrochemical process on the Mg-5Zn alloy surface. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to characterize the kinetics of the corrosion of Mg-5Zn. It was observed that the presence of 1% succinic acid and 1% malonic acid enhanced the corrosion process of Mg-5Zn in 1%(NH4)3PO4 and 1% NaF. The acid-base reaction between Mg(OH)2 with succinic acid and malonic acid on the Mg-5Zn surface promoted the degradation rate of Mg-5Zn alloys.
The authors would like to thank the Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials – Indonesian Institute of Sciences and Ministry of Research and Higher Education for funding this project through the INSINAS, contract number 087/P/RPL-LIPI/SINAS-1/II/2019, 2019.
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