• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 8, No 7 (2017)

Fabrication of Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles Sensitized using Natural Dye Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarps

Fabrication of Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles Sensitized using Natural Dye Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarps

Title: Fabrication of Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles Sensitized using Natural Dye Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarps
Nofrijon Sofyan, Aga Ridhova, Akhmad Herman Yuwono, Arief Udhiarto

Corresponding email:

Published at : 27 Dec 2017
Volume : IJtech Vol 8, No 7 (2017)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v8i7.692

Cite this article as:
Sofyan, N., Ridhova, A., Yuwono, A.H., Udhiarto, A., 2017. Fabrication of Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles Sensitized using Natural Dye Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarps. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 1229-1238

Nofrijon Sofyan - Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Aga Ridhova Universitas Indonesia
Akhmad Herman Yuwono Universitas Indonesia
Arief Udhiarto Universitas Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Fabrication of Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles Sensitized using Natural Dye Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarps

Faced with ever-shrinking reserves of fossil-based energy, in addition to the damaging impacts of the use of fossil-based energy sources, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming, efforts are needed to find energy alternatives. Currently under development as an alternative source of renewable energy, utilizing solar energy as its source, is a device incorporating the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), which works using the simple photosynthetic-electrochemical principle at the molecular level. In this type of device, inorganic oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) offer great potential for the absorption of photon energy from the solar energy source, especially in the form of a TiO2 nanoparticle structure. In this study, a commercial TiO2 nanoparticle was used. The as-received TiO2 nanoparticle was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For sensitizer, a natural dye extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarps was used. The extracted natural dye was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) for the functional groups, whereas ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) was used to examine the absorption activity of the extracted natural dye. Performance of the DSSC was analyzed through a precision current versus potential difference (I-V) curve analyzer. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mangosteen natural dye was obtained using ethanol containing 20% distilled water as compared to commercial organic dye with a PCE of 4.02%. This result is convincing and promising for the next development.

Anthocyanin; Dye-sensitized solar cell; Hydrothermal method; Mangosteen pericarp; TiO2 nanoparticle.


The extraction of natural dye from mangosteen pericarps has been successfully carried out using various solvents. The extracted dyes have also been successfully applied as a sensitizer for DSSC fabricated on a commercial TiO2 nanoparticle anode. In this work, the best solvent for extracting natural dye from mangosteen pericarps for use with a DSSC device is found to be ethanol containing 20% distilled water, with a PCE of 3.91%. The dyes extracted using other solvents are found to have low PCEs; however, the stability of the dyes in the DSSC device are yet to be further confirmed.


The authors would like to express their gratitude for the funding received from the Directorate of Research and Community Services (DRPM), Universitas Indonesia, through Hibah PITTA No. 823/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2017.

Supplementary Material
R1-MME-692-20171002203448.pdf Manuscript File pdf

Al-Alwani M.A.M., Mohamad., A.B., Kadhum,A.A.H., Ludin N.A., 2015. Effect of Solvents onthe Extraction of Natural Pigments and Adsorption onto TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications. SpectrochimicaActa Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Volume 138, pp. 130–137

Calogero, G., Yum, J.-H., Sinopoli, A., Marco, G.D., Grätzel, M., Nazeeruddin, M.K., 2012. Anthocyanins and Betalains as Light-harvesting Pigments for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells. Solar Energy, Volume 86, pp. 1563–1575

Chaovanalikit, A., Mingmuang, A., Kitbunluewit, T., Choldumrongkool, N., Sondee, J., Chupratum, S., 2012. Anthocyanin and Total Phenolics Content of Mangosteen and Effect of Processing on the Quality of Mangosteen Products. International Food Research Journal, Volume 19(3), pp. 1047–1053

Cullity, B.D., 1978. Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., Massachusetts, pp. 284?288

Dette, C., Perez-Osorio, M.A., Kley, C.S., Punke, P., Patrick, C. E., Jacobson, P., Giustino, F., Jung, S.J., Kern, K., 2014. TiO2 Anatase with a Bandgap in the Visible Region. Nano Letters, Volume 14(11), pp. 6533?6538

Du, C.T., Francis, F.J., 1977. Anthocyanins of Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana. Journal of Food Science, Volume 42(6), pp. 1667–1668

Fernando, J.M.R.C., Senadeera, G.K.R., 2008. Natural Anthocyanins as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Devices. Current Science, Volume 95(5), pp. 663–666

Grätzel, M., 2001. Photoelectrochemical Cells. Nature,Volume 414, pp. 338–344

Hagfeldt, A., Grätzel, M., 1995. Light-induced Redox Reactions in Nanocrystalline Systems. Chemical Reviews, Volume 95(1), pp. 49–68

Ikezawa, S., Homyara, H., Kubota, T., Suzuki, R., Koh, S., Mutuga, F., Yoshioka, T., Nishikawi, A., Ninomiya, Y., Takahashi, M., Baba, K., Kida, K., Hara, T., Famankinwa, T., 2001. Applications of TiO2 Film for Environmental Purification Deposited by Controlled Electron Beam-Excited Plasma. Thin Solid Films, Volume 386(2), pp. 173–176

Kalyanasundaram, K., Grätzel, M., 1998. Applications of Functionalized Transition Metal Complexes in Photonic and Optoelectronic Devices. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Volume 177(1), pp. 347–414

Kavana, L., Attiaa, A., Lenzmann, F., Elder, S.H., Grätzel, M., 2000. Lithium Insertion into Zirconia?stabilized Mesoscopic TiO2 (Anatase). Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Volume 147(8), pp. 2897–2902

Kumara, G.R.A., Kaneko, S., Okuya, M., Onwona-Agyeman, B., Konno, A., Tennakone, K., 2006. Shiso Leaf Pigments for Dye-sensitized Solid-state Solar Cell. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 90(9), pp. 1220–1226

Lekphet, W., Ke, T.-C.., Su, C., Sireesha, P., Kathirvel, S., Lin, Y.-F., Chen, B-R., Li, W.-R., 2017. Effect of Surfactants on the Morphologies of TiO2 Particles with High-performance Scattering Layer in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells. Solar Energy, Volume 142, pp. 1–12

Liu, L., Ji, Z., Zou, W., Gu, X., Deng, Y., Gao, F., Tang, C., Dong, L., 2013. In Situ Loading Transition Metal Oxide Clusters on TiO2 Nanosheets as Co-catalysts for Exceptional High Photoactivity. ACS Catalysis, Volume 3(9). pp 2052–2061

Livraghi, S., Votta, A., Paganini, M.C., Giamello, E., 2005. The Nature of Paramagnetic Species in Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Active in Visible Light Photocatalysis. Chemical Communications, Volume 4, pp. 498–500

Morton, J.F., 1987. 'Mangosteen,' in Fruits of Warm Climates. Purdue New Crops Profile. pp. 301–304

Narayan, M.R., 2012. Review: Dye Sensitized Solar Cells based on Natural Photosensitizers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 16(1), pp. 208–215

O'Regan, B., Grätzel, M., 1991. A Low-cost, High Efficiency Solar Cell based on Dye-sensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films. Nature, Volume 353, pp. 737–740

Pereira Jr., V.A., de Arruda, I.N.Q., Stefani, R., 2015. Active Chitosan/PVA Films with Anthocyanins from Brassica Oleraceae (Red Cabbage) as Time/Temperature Indicators for Application in Intelligent Food Packaging. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 43, pp. 180–188

Rotello, V.M., 2004. Nanoparticles: Building Blocks for Nanotechnology. Amherst: Springer Science & Business Media, pp. 115–116

Saputra, A., Mizan, A., Sofyan, N., Yuwono, A.H., 2017. Investigating the Effect of Various Extracting Solvents on the Potential Use of Red-Apple Skin (malus domestica) as Natural Sensitizer for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1826(1), pp. 020006-1–020006-7

Sholehah, A., Yuwono, A.H, Sofyan, N., Hudaya, C., Amal, M.I., 2017. Effect of Post-Hydrothermal Treatments on the Physical Properties of ZnO Layer Derived from Chemical Bath Deposition. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(4), pp. 651–661

Tharakan, P., 2015. Summary of Indonesia's Energy Sector Assessment. Jakarta: Asian Development Bank

Varghese, O.K., Gong, D., Paulose, M., Ong, K.G., Dickey, E.C., Grimes, C.A., 2003. Extreme Changes in the Electrical Resistance of Titania Nanotubes with Hydrogen Exposure. Advanced Materials, Volume 15(7-8), pp. 624–627

Wang, W.-N., Soulis, J., Yang, Y., Biswas, P., 2014. Comparison of CO2 Photoreduction Systems: A Review. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Volume 14(2), pp. 533–549

Yuwono, A.H., Ramahdita, G., Sofyan, N., 2012. The Nanocrystallinity Enhancement and Optical Characteristics of Pre-Hydrothermally Treated ZnO Nanoparticles. Advanced Materials Research, Volume 557-559, pp. 468–471

Zhang, D., Lanier, S.M., Downing, J.A., Avent, J.L., Lumc, J., McHale, J.L., 2008. Betalain Pigments for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, Volume 195(1), pp. 72–80