• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 14, No 3 (2023)

Progressing the Sustainable Mobility: View of Electric Vehicles

Progressing the Sustainable Mobility: View of Electric Vehicles

Title: Progressing the Sustainable Mobility: View of Electric Vehicles
Yudan Whulanza

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Cite this article as:
Whulanza, Y., 2023. Progressing the Sustainable Mobility: View of Electric Vehicles. International Journal of Technology. Volume 14(3), pp. 455-459

Yudan Whulanza Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424, Indonesia
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Progressing the Sustainable Mobility: View of Electric Vehicles

The outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro, 2012, affirms the shifting behavior of people's movements. It encourages public transport and railways to minimize movement whenever possible to gain CO2 emission from the transport sector. Technology trends toward 'eco-mobility' in parallel with government commitments have significantly emerged in a decade after the release of document.
       Last July 2022, the European Union announced a target of reducing CO2 emissions by 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. Other countries, such as the United States, India, Brazil, and Japan, are also pursuing similar targets. To meet these goals, car manufacturers are developing new electric vehicle (EV) platforms, including hybrid, fuel cell/hydrogen-based, and purely electric models. Most of the major OEMs have plans to convert 20 to 50% of their capacity to EV by 2025, which will increase to 40%-70% by 2030. Jaguar, for example, plans to sell only electric cars from 2025. For Volvo and Nissan, it is from 2030. General Motors will only produce electric vehicles by 2035. Volkswagen says 70% of its sales will be electric by 2030.

As the global appetite for electric vehicles grows, EVs are the short and mid-term solution to reduce mobility emissions. But, when looking at the carbon footprint of emissions within the whole cradle-to-grave value chain, is the story as clear cut? Many vendors that provide components for vehicles powered by internal combustion engines face significant challenges in matching the pace of change.

EV Sustainable Chain

EVs are radically simpler than fossil fuel-driven vehicles. In mechanical terms, they rely on far fewer traditional components. In fact, an EV drivetrain contains around 20 moving parts, as opposed to the 2,000 parts found in a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. However, it does not mean the supply chain is much easier, as there's less to move around. EV battery logistics are highly complex and require sophisticated tracking and measurement for safe transport and storage. EV manufacturers also rely as much on software providers, so the supplier mix is very different. Often simpler but not always easier.

History is known that electric vehicles took the road in 1881. Additionally, in 1899, 90% of New York City's taxi cabs were electric vehicles. In the same year, electric cars outsold all types of cars, including gas and steam-powered vehicles. Due mainly to the cost of production and global adoption of fossil fuels, by 1935, the EV was officially dead. Now, EV innovation is once again moving at an incredible pace, faster than we ever imagined. Moreover, with the cost of production reducing significantly, the likelihood of EVs suffering the same fate as those in the 20th century is highly unlikely.

       Auto-mobility supply chains are truly global supply chains with global sourcing patterns. They also tend to be lean and agile. So "just in time" is important for auto-mobility. These days, the challenges that the industry is facing with semiconductor shortages, with some materials also shortages.
    Several major logistic companies have pledged that by 2040 or 2050, and their supply chain must be carbon neutral. Ultimately, everybody needs to go in that direction if they want to stay in the green and sustainable market. In order to have a significant impact on CO2 in the supply chain, they invested in an electronic vehicle (EV) fleet. The supply chain is far more complex, and the next step we need to take is to have green assets, like warehouses and offices, that all contribute to those emissions. In addition to that, it is necessary to work on supply chain optimization.
      It is believed that technology plays an important role when it comes to decarbonizing across roads, air, and ocean. A localized and shorter supply chain is optimized to have every kilometer less driven or flown. Reading through customer data and trying to optimize processes, mode of transportation, and the way the process is transporting to all the world.

The Adjacent Technologies of EV

 The biggest challenge facing EVs today is their maximum range and charging rate. However, the Stellantis consortium has set performance targets that claim to have cars that can travel up to 800 kilometers on a single charge. In parallel, the charging speed is targeted to reach 32 kilometers per minute. Note that Stellantis consists of Fiat Chrysler Automobile and Peugeot SA, with a total of 14 car brands by today. The consortium, in particular, works on two big programs. The first one is the “vehicle to grid”. Vehicles are connected to the grid in bi-directional power. The cars can ask for power to the grid or also give power to the grid when needed. The next exciting innovation is charging on the move. A collaboration with universities intended to test the so-called dynamic wireless power transfer. The technology allows vehicles to be recharged while driving. Cars that are moving on the street can be recharged because of the coils that are placed below the asphalt.

Eventually, the surge of EVs must compensate with charging infrastructure. Now, there's a lot of talk about the democratization of charging for residential and business properties. The BP and Aral offer charging and fueling vehicles under the same canopy. Since they predicted over the next few years, there will be a mix of different engine types, and both fuel and electricity will be needed. Today’s chargers are able to dispense 300 kilowatts. Recharge 300 kilometers of range in about 10 minutes. However, most charging stations take time to build since they include building permits. Ultra-fast charging with a few hundred kilometers range within a few minutes is the future and helps to democratize charging.

         The energy sector is very close with the auto-mobility team to make sure that these two industries talk together. Nobody would've ever thought that today, a plane in the air that's driven by electric power exists. This trend is continuing. The challenge of electrification, which is also an opportunity, is the battery. The lithium battery. It is considered as being dangerous goods. Right solutions in terms of addressing the regulations related to these batteries for transportation and warehousing are essential.