• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 13, No 4 (2022)

Structural Equation Modelling For Improving Fire Safety Reliability through Enhancing Fire Safety Management on High-Rise Building

Structural Equation Modelling For Improving Fire Safety Reliability through Enhancing Fire Safety Management on High-Rise Building

Title: Structural Equation Modelling For Improving Fire Safety Reliability through Enhancing Fire Safety Management on High-Rise Building
Paulus Setyo Nugroho, Yusuf Latief, Wahyu Wibowo

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Cite this article as:
Nugroho, P.S., Latief, Y., Wibowo, W., 2022. Structural Equation Modelling For Improving Fire Safety Reliability through Enhancing Fire Safety Management on High-Rise Building. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(4), pp. 740-750

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Paulus Setyo Nugroho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI Depok, West Java - 16424 Indonesia
Yusuf Latief Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI Depok, West Java - 16424 Indonesia
Wahyu Wibowo Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI Depok, West Java - 16424 Indonesia
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Abstract
Structural Equation Modelling For Improving Fire Safety Reliability through Enhancing Fire Safety Management on High-Rise Building

The growth of high-rise buildings is triggered by expensive land prices and the need for construction for hotels, offices, and colleges. Besides the great benefits, high-rise building also has a consequence of fire risks. This indicates that its extinction is challenging with the occurrence of fire outbreaks, due to the flammable furniture and characteristics of high-rise buildings. To anticipate this condition, fire safety protection in high-rise buildings should be reliable. Furthermore, the Indonesian government has reportedly issued regulations and technical guidelines regarding the reliability of fire safety, although fires still occur and cause loss of life and property. Science and engineering also provide a performance-based alternative approach. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the reliability of the fire safety model produced from the integration of FSM (Fire Safety Management) variables, namely flame prevention, people safety, monitoring, audit, review and reactive assessment. In a high-rise building, the initial model was validated by experts within the fire safety field. At the initial stage, the identification of FSM implementation was carried out for building functions in Jakarta, where construction surveys were conducted using a questionnaire and checklist for the completeness of the protection system. Using a spreadsheet and the Smart PLS application, the data were also processed to produce the implementation of FSM and test the effect of independent variables on the dependent factors, respectively. Subsequently, the sub-variables with low FSM implementation were used to improve the fire safety conditions in buildings. By implementing all FSM variables, reliability was then achieved, as improvement efforts were prioritized on the sub-variables with low implementation and priority on fire prevention and monitoring, audit, and review. The integration of the FSM variables' implementation also consistently produced fire safety reliability, as well as guaranteed life and property protection.

Fire safety management; Fire Safety Reliability; High-rise building; Life and Property Safety

Introduction

    Fire is a serious threat significantly threatening life, infrastructures, properties, and the environment in developing countries (Kodur et al., 2018). This is confirmed by the provincial government of Jakarta, which recorded more than 500 fire accidents annually in the past five years, causing multiple fatalities and injuries. For example, the fire caused 46/25 deaths and 118/>150 injuries in 2017 and 2018, respectively (Rahardjo, 2020).  It also causes direct economic losses fivefold due to earthquakes, with only one level below drought and flood. In mid-2019, the economic losses due to the fire within Jakarta are estimated at 137.8 billion rupiah (Zhi-Xiang, 2011). This indicates that high-rise building needs to implement a fire safety management (FSM) system, due to multipurpose usages and intensive access of non-specific persons and low environmental sensitivity. These are to effectively guide individuals in abiding with appropriate fire evacuation procedures, towards the guarantee of personal safety (Chen et al., 2012). FSM is also one of the efforts to help manage fire risk from design, construction, and monitoring to operation stages (Ramli, 2010). This is in line with The Ministerial Regulation of Public Works No: 26/PRT/M/2008, concerning Technical Requirement for Fire Protection System in Buildings and Environment, which stated that a building should function safely by having the protection system for planning, operation, development and utilization (Suprapto, 2008; Murtiadi, 2013; Ajizah, 2018). This indicates that fire safety aims to prevent the collapse of the building under flammable conditions, subsequently providing the occupants with sufficient time to escape safely (Suwondo, et.al, 2021).
    This study aims to identify the dominant FSM (Fire Safety Management) factors influential to safety reliability. According to Indonesian regulations, fire safety reliability is achieved through the execution of active and passive protection, rescue facilities, and exit routes (Xiang et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2012; Tofilo, et al., 2013). This indicates that the fire potential in high-rise buildings should be minimized. These building facilities should subsequently be adequate in achieving fire safety for occupants and property. Moreover, occupancy management should be regulated for the behaviours and activities of building occupants to be in line with the safety criteria. All utilized pieces of equipment should also be regularly maintained, sustained, and tested. These aforementioned principles are known as fire safety management, whose adequate implementation ensures safety reliability. Based on the FSM implementation in a high-rise building, various functions and recommendations are identified and delivered for continuous improvement. Structural Equation Modeling is also useful in describing the concept of a model with latent variables, which are measured through indicators although not directly. These variables are essentially processed in path analysis using SEM (Chin, 1998), a method used to enable the construction of the unobservable factors measured by indicators (items, manifest variables, or observed measures). It also enables the use of direct measurement models to analyze the observed variables (Chin, 1998).

Conclusion

Based on this study, fire lift indicators showed that the annual reports and emergency exit communications required attention, due to the lowest implementation being 16%, 52% and 58% in college buildings. This indicated that fire prevention, people safety, audit monitoring, and reactive assessment had significant effects on FSR (fire safety reliability), with a success rate of 80.7%. For the hotel, office, and college facilities in Jakarta, the FSM implementation on the high-rise building was categorically good. This indicated that the highest and lowest implementation values were observed in the hotel and college buildings, respectively. Meanwhile, the implementation value of the office buildings was found between the hotel and the college facilities. For improvement on each FSM variable, several recommendations were provided on the low implementation factors. To achieve optimum FSR, treatment should be conducted on the dominant and influential variables, namely fire prevention and audit monitoring. This indicated that the FSR model was affected by fire protection, people safety, audit monitoring, and reactive assessment, indicating that higher variable implementations led to better reliability. Additionally, the integration of all FSM variables supported the assurance of life and property safety in high-rise buildings.

Acknowledgement

    The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, for the provision of financial support through the PDUPT Grant 2021 with contract number: NKB-220/UN2. RST/HKP.05.00/2021, which is managed by the Directorate for Research and Community Engagement (DRPM), Ministry of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). 

Supplementary Material
FilenameDescription
R1-CVE-5517-20220302133647.docx Manuscript file - with highlight
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