• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 7 (2021)

Justification of an Integrated Approach to Ensuring Information Security of Unmanned Vehicles in Intelligent Transport Systems

Justification of an Integrated Approach to Ensuring Information Security of Unmanned Vehicles in Intelligent Transport Systems

Title: Justification of an Integrated Approach to Ensuring Information Security of Unmanned Vehicles in Intelligent Transport Systems
Ivan Babkin, Olga Pisareva, Andrey Starikovskiy , Makhmudova Guljakhon, Yulia Anoshina

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Cite this article as:
Babkin, I., Pisareva, O., Starikovskiy , A., Guljakhon, M., Anoshina , Y., 2021. Justification of an Integrated Approach to Ensuring Information Security of Unmanned Vehicles in Intelligent Transport Systems. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(7), pp. 1407-1416

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Ivan Babkin Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaia Street, 29, Saint Petersburg, 195251, Russia
Olga Pisareva The State University of Management, Ryazanskiy Prospect, 99, Moscow, 109542, Russia
Andrey Starikovskiy The State University of Management, Ryazanskiy Prospect, 99, Moscow, 109542, Russia
Makhmudova Guljakhon National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, 4 Universitetskaya Street, Tashkent, 100174, Uzbekistan
Yulia Anoshina Moscow State University of Technology and Management 117418, Russia, Moscow, Novocheremushkinskaya Street, 69
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Justification of an Integrated Approach to Ensuring Information Security of Unmanned Vehicles in Intelligent Transport Systems

The economic and social infrastructure of countries is improving under the growing influence of digital transformation, within which unmanned transportation technologies are being developed. The increased risks involve the driverless vehicle control and interaction mechanism, which determines the significance of information security analysis and support in the automated traffic environment. The technical aspect is considered in terms of a conceptual approach to identifying a comprehensive threat model for evaluating the security of information communications on the “driverless vehicle–road infrastructure” technological platform. The organizational aspect embraces the requirements and objectives related to the designing of test sites that should address a range of problems that are concerned with the information security of automated vehicles. The legal aspect is seen from the perspective of building a national certification system for driverless cars and active elements of road infrastructure. This promising research area includes work in the field of technical solutions, technological standards, and organizational guidelines to ensure the information security of automated transport.

Automated transport; Intelligent transport system; Information security; Threat model; Unmanned technology validation

Introduction

One significant effect of the digital transformation of the economy is the spread of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs), including automobiles. The transfer to 5G mobile communication and modernized solutions for 4G with the use of «Long Term Evolution» (LTE) communication protocols has created a single technological platform of information communication between CAVs and various elements of the external environment in an integral digital transport system called Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X), which is based on high-speed data exchange and artificial intelligence methods.

This is an important stage in the full deployment of intelligent transport systems (ITS) with automated vehicles and related road infrastructure (RI) in urbanized spaces. To form a national ITS, a number of technical, organizational, and legal problems must be resolved so that the general safety of CAVs can meet the acceptable level. If the system is to be fully deployed, new transport vulnerability zones must appear together, along with a new traffic control and management system and active RI items.

The growing number of threats to the normal operation of CAVs means that it is essential to change the standards and requirements that regulate the creation and operation of driverless cars. The functional capabilities of automated vehicles can be implemented, primarily if the problems of information security (IS) are studied in the context of the digital environment of innovative technical solutions for automobiles, transport infrastructure, and information communications systems for traffic organization and management. Consequently, the core of the testing problem changes because IS is assessed when CAVs and ITS elements are validated and verified in the commissioning process. As of today, the evolution, state, and prospects of highly automated vehicles have been discussed by Maurer et al. (2016). In addition, the potential of digital technology has been analyzed by Leviäkangas (2013), Ilin et al. (2018), Bataev and Aleksandrova (2020), Ivankova et al. (2020), and Tashenova et al. (2020), while the technical aspects of testing the IS of CAVs have been covered by Berger (2010), Barus et al. (2016), and Childress et al. (2016). Some original technical solutions have been proposed by Russian scientists as well, including Chikrin et al. (2019), who introduced CAV positioning algorithms. The correlation between CAV technology’s effectiveness and value and the analysis of CAVs’ effects have been presented by Hassn et al. (2016) and Economic and Social Value of Autonomous Vehicles (2018). The safety problems associated with unmanned technologies have also been in the spotlight. The general approaches to this theme are specified in Safety First for Automated Driving: A White Paper (2019). The problems and methods of providing IS for CAVs in the ITS environment were presented by Cui and Sabaliauskaite (2017). The matters of risk assessment for digital technologies in cyberphysical systems have been discussed by Grishunin et al. (2020), and the concept of a CAV test site was validated and solutions to its planning were presented by Szalay et al. (2017).

    However, the analysis of the state and results of the research area shows that no solutions have been found to the problems of comprehensive risk analysis for the entire range of information communications of CAVs in ITS. The purpose of our work is to determine a system approach to providing IS for CAVs that would combine technological, organizational, and legal aspects in organizing and regulating the process of their design, development, creation, introduction, and operation. The research study implies building a structural risk model for CAV IS for the further development of risk assessment methods and the creation of testing tools for protecting the information communications of CAVs.


Conclusion

The top priority of the implementation stage of unmanned transport is to ensure the security of the CAV technology platform. This unlocks the potential of CAVs, reduces total costs, and results in additional effects due not only to the optimization of traffic routes, the control of fuel consumption, and the lessened impact on the environment but also to the decrease in accidents and reduction of financial losses. The study shows that, given the CAV design and ITS architecture, the overall safety level of unmanned transport cannot be improved unless IS objectives are achieved. Thus, according to the purpose of the study, the work proposes a comprehensive approach to ensuring the IS of CAVs based on the end-to-end use of the threat model in the process of development, testing, and certification and to taking into account various aspects related to the construction of the ITS. In the course of solving the tasks that had been set, the following scientific results were obtained: (1) the areas, factors, and conditions that contribute to the successful introduction of autonomous vehicles were identified; (2) the technological, organizational, and legal aspects were identified and specified for the comprehensive approach to solving the problem of IS of CAVs when a national ITS is created in the digital economy; (3) based on the architecture of information interaction in the ITS presented by the authors, a comprehensive threat model was formed to predetermine the elaboration of the risk profile for the IS of CAVs; (4) the specification and development of a CAV testing site was carried out to supplement the security testing tasks and check how reliable the protection of the V2Xtechnological platform is; and (5) the composition of objectives and schemes was determined for building a national certification system for the IS of CAVs and RI elements in the ITS environment.

       Further research in this area should be dedicated to the system of national standards for the ITS and methods for testing CAVs. This involves the assimilation of national and international requirements not only to ensure CAV safety, but also to comply with the principles of interoperability and multimodality of CAV devices and technologies for the “seamless” building of global transport corridors to be used for various types of transportation.

Acknowledgement

    The research is partially funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation under the strategic academic leadership program Priority 2030 (Agreement 075-15-2021-1333 dated 30.09.2021).

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