|Ekaterina Tereshko||Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, 194064, Russia|
|Irina Rudskaya||Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, 194064, Russia|
study of industry digitalization in Russia is relevant and promising in
accordance with global trends and the main strategic documents of the Russian
Federation in the context of increasing productivity, reducing costs, and
increasing efficiency. The purpose of this study is to describe a systematic
approach to managing a construction complex under the conditions of the
digitalization of the economy from the micro level (the level of organizations)
to the level of municipalities and regions. The article describes the process
of transition to digitalization at the micro level in a construction complex
and also analyzes the options for digitizing investment and construction
projects at the micro level. It also describes the structural integration of a
construction complex from the micro level to the level of the
municipality/region through information services and through formed proposals
for the formation of a management system for such construction complexes in
municipalities and regions of Russia under the conditions of the digitalization
of the economy. Based on the conducted analysis and the formed proposals,
problems regarding the management of a construction complex of a
municipality/region under the conditions of the digital economy are identified,
namely: (1) a lack of developed standards for regulating the digital modeling
of buildings; (2) a low level of employee ownership of software complexes that
form building information modeling at the micro level; (3) the need for the
continuous professional development of employees; and (4) the poor integration
of some software products. In the future, based on the results of this study,
it will be possible to form the structure of an information system for managing
urban development and the space of municipalities, as well as a strategic
approach to managing these digital processes at the municipal and regional
levels in the regions of Russia.
Construction complex; Construction industry; Digitalization; Regional and urban development; System approach
Currently, the process of digital transformation is taking place, and digital and robotic processes that contribute to the optimization of routine processes are being actively introduced into industries and complexes. Considering industry adaptation to the processes of digitalization, we can distinguish such industries as those of agriculture, oil and gas, healthcare, construction, energy, etc. (Dmitrievsky et al., 2016; Leonov, 2018; Gorbunova et al., 2019; Mozokhin and Shvedenko, 2019; Tereshko and Rudskaya, 2020).
The construction industry is a promising and rapidly developing industry in the context of the implementation of digital processes at the micro level. It is in this industry that innovative processes and advanced digital technologies are actively used, and the main design processes of production, non-production, and linear objects are gradually digitized and robotized (Oparina et al., 2018; Tereshko and Rudskaya, 2020; Tereshko et al., 2021). It is also possible to note the use of digital processes in the direct construction of capital construction projects.
Thanks to the approach of digital evolution in the construction industry, digital technologies provide the necessary development model and an improved organizational shift in an industry that is at the stage of implementing automation, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and innovation. The joint use of new technologies allows one to speed up decision-making, simplify the workflow, and avoid repeating tasks and mistakes. This fact is confirmed by scientific studies conducted by Russian and foreign authors (Sharmanov et al., 2015; Talapov, 2015; Grakhov et al., 2015; Kupriyanovsky et al., 2016; Sinyagov et al., 2017; Dronov et al., 2017; Razov et al., 2018; Doan et al., 2018; Chai et al., 2019; Jin et al., 2019; Oraee et al., 2019; Heigermoser et al., 2019; Chen and Lu, 2019; Santos et al., 2019; Chan et al., 2019; Asadi et al., 2019; Hong et al., 2019; Al-Saeed et al., 2020).
Scientists have considered different aspects of digital processes of construction production and technologies of building information modeling (BIM). For example, the authors in Jin et al. (2019) and Santos et al. (2019) examined the importance of the development of BIM technologies through studying publication activity in scientometric databases, as well as the impact of these studies on the sustainable development of territories. In other works (Talapov, 2015; Sinyagov et al., 2017; Chen and Lu, 2019; Asadi et al., 2019; Al-Saeed et al., 2020), various aspects of managing digital processes, information flows in design, and construction are considered. Al-Saeed et al. (2020) addressed the concept of implementing digital objects (BDO) of BIM for automating the processes of manufacturers of construction products and expanding lean manufacturing. The structure developed by the authors in Al-Saeed et al. (2020) illustrates the advantages of BDO by reducing the number of production processes to effectively eliminate early errors in the model, generate financial savings, and reduce material losses.
Some studies (Talapov, 2015; Grakhov et al., 2015; Razov et al., 2018; Heigermoser et al., 2019; Hong et al., 2019; Chan et al., 2019) are devoted to the prospect of the development of BIM technologies and the importance of implementing these technologies in construction organizations. For example, in the works by Grakhov et al. (2015) and Hong et al. (2019), the authors examined the opportunities that arise when using BIM technology, as well as problems that can be solved with it. In addition, Grakhov et al. (2015) analyzed the possible impact of the use of BIM technology on the economy of the industry and found that it contributes significantly to increasing the competitiveness of construction enterprises.
Of course, when moving toward a new format of organizing the activities of design and construction enterprises, there are a number of difficulties and barriers that may arise. This aspect is considered by the authors of several works (Sharmanov et al., 2015; Grakhov et al., 2015; Dronov et al., 2017; Razov et al., 2018; Oraee et al., 2019; Chan et al., 2019).
Research focused on the development of digital processes of investment and construction projects and complexes is also important (Chen et al., 2011; Shcherbina, 2017; Selyutina, 2018; Davydov et al., 2018; Churbanov et al., 2018). A qualitative assessment of the investment component is important to take into account at the time of obtaining a construction permit. Thus, this aspect is widely studied by researchers, and options for digital optimization are offered.
The scientific research analysis has shown that digital processes of construction production have been studied substantially, including various aspects of the development of BIM and the digital optimization of the construction process; however, the research did not find an approach focused on the digitalization of investment and construction projects at the municipal level in order to optimize urban development and form an effective construction complex for the municipality, contributing to its long-term development and providing a synergetic effect in the "municipality–construction organization–municipality" relationship. There are also no studies aimed at creating a unique digital environment for regulating the process of implementing projects at the municipal level.
The digitalization of investment and construction projects can contribute to the implementation of important tasks, both at the level of concluding transactions between an organization and an investor (an individual) and obtaining investment support for the construction of an object, and at the municipal level, when it is necessary to provide developers with investment support from the funds of the municipality. The digital model of the building, with the proper organization of project activities, allows for a comprehensive assessment of the capital construction object at the level of the tenders held. This study is conducted by the municipalities. Therefore, the study of the issue of the possible digitization of investment and construction projects is promising, and in the future, at the municipal level, it could become the basis for creating a single tool for regulating the activities of design and construction organizations, as well as the planned development of the territories of municipalities with a preliminary assessment of the requested places for the construction of objects. In this way, the construction industry can act as a driver of digital regional development, which it is advisable to consider through the prism of a regional construction complex (the organization of the activities of construction enterprises from project documentation to the commissioning of facilities, which is aimed at the integrated strategic development of the territory (Tereshko and Rudskaya, 2020; Tereshko et al., 2021).
The purpose of the study is to offer an information system for managing such construction complexes in the regions of Russia. In accordance with this goal, it is necessary to perform the following tasks: (1) describe the process of transition to digitalization at the micro level in a construction complex; (2) analyze the methodology of the digitization of investment and construction projects at the micro level; (3) describe the structural integration of a construction complex from the micro level to the level of the municipality/region through information services; and (4) identify problems in the management of a construction complex of a municipality/region in the digital economy.
In this article, a systematic approach to the management of a construction complex under the conditions of digitalization was considered from the micro level (the level of construction organizations and enterprises) to the level of the municipality/region. The basics of the transition to the digital environment for construction enterprises in accordance with the six stages identified are defined, and the option of the digitalization of investment and construction projects is considered in detail. A model for integrating the digital transformation of an investment and construction project with the municipal and federal levels is proposed, and the main barriers to the implementation of this model are identified.
At this stage, the proposed system approach can be used as a basic structure for managing the information space of construction complexes at the municipal and regional levels. In addition, using the proposed approach, it is possible to organize the activities of a large number of stakeholders in accordance with the Strategy of Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation.
In the future, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and the Moscow Region can organize such a regional information system in the territories of the Russian Federation, and 53 regions of Russia are potentially ready, based on the rating of the regions' readiness for the digitalization of construction complexes (Tereshko et al., 2021). In due course, based on the results of this study, it will be possible to form the structure of an information system for managing urban development and the space of municipalities, as well as a strategic approach to managing these digital processes at the municipal and regional levels in the regions of Russia.
research is partially funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of
the Russian Federation under the strategic academic leadership program
'Priority 2030' (Agreement 075-15-2021-1333 dated 30.09.2021).
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