|Mohammed Ali Berawi||1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia 2. Center for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, Facu|
|Mustika Sari||Center for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Fikroh Amalia Fahmi Addiani||Center for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Nunik Madyaningrum||Center for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
documents in possession of government agencies are considered as assets that
must be protected. Government agencies have started implementing cloud data
storage systems to document data in a centralized network. However, this data
storage system has been well-known as being threatened by data security,
integrity, and data availability risks. On the other hand, blockchain
technology, a decentralized, fast, secure, transparent, and recorded data
storage system, is considered as the solution for mitigating these risks.
Therefore, this study aims to identify the dominant risk factors of implementing
the cloud computing storage system in government agencies potentially impacting
its organizational performance and developing a risk-based data storage system
that considers blockchain technology. This research used questionnaire surveys,
case studies, and expert interviews to obtain its research objectives. The
results demonstrated that six dominant risks included data theft and breaches,
data corruption caused by virus attacks, limited storage space, data loss
caused by system damage, data being accessed without particular access rights,
and lack of guarantees from the system when a security threat occurred. A model
for the blockchain-based cloud data storage system is proposed to address these
risks and to improve the organizational performance of government agencies.
Blockchain; Cloud; Data storage system; Government agencies
To carry out its duties and functions mandated by law, government agencies require thorough data protection systems (Hill, 2014). Confidential documents and classified information in these agencies are considered as government assets that must be protected during use, storage, or transmission of information through the application of policies, education, and technology (Whitman and Mattord, 2018). Therefore, a secure data storage system in government agencies is needed, particularly for agencies that possess confidential data and information in their documents, considering the large volume and the high value of information that must be managed and protected from all possible threats.
Like many other countries, Indonesia has widely implemented cloud storage systems to document data and information in its government agencies. Cloud computing is a scalable and reliable platform that requires minimal management effort (Natesan and Chokkalingam, 2019; Wong et al., 2019). However, its security is still prone to cyber-attacks (Vurukonda and Rao, 2016). With the amount of data that keeps increasing every year, data integration and confidentiality have become crucial aspects that the institutions must consider in improving the data storage system (Irion, 2013; Lnenicka and Komarkova, 2019). In a traditional storage system, centralized data control does not guarantee the data's confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity. Therefore, a distributed data storage technology known for protecting data authenticity, confidentiality, and integrity is needed for government agencies (Rajalakshmi et al., 2018).
Digital technology has become one of the factors that influence the organizational performance of governmental agencies (Khin and Ho, 2019). The implementation of data and information storage systems influences the agency’s work performance in terms of having the security threat as a risk portfolio borne by the agency (Abd Al Ghaffar, 2020). Therefore, risk factors in the current data storage system and their potential impacts on the government agency’s organizational performance need to be examined. The risk-identifying process conducted in this paper was done through a risk management approach to identify the dominant risk factors.
Blockchain is a distributed ledger that uses public-key encryption and consensus protocol verifying the authenticity to record data on nodes called blocks in a secure, transparent, decentralized, cost-effective, and time-efficient manner (Cai, 2018). It can be perceived as a group of people sharing data using no intermediary agents, where trust between all the involved parties can still be built since all parties can see all the occurring transactions in the blockchain network (Berawi et al., 2020). Moreover, with its decentralized nature, the data is controlled by all participants in the network with a consensus protocol that rules the system (Rajalakshmi et al., 2018).
Previous studies (Ølnes et al., 2017; Alketbi et al., 2018; Razzaq et al., 2019) argued that blockchain has tremendous potential for government services, as it can help address issues such as human error, data privacy, security, and safety. Research regarding blockchain technology for cloud storage systems has been carried out extensively throughout the world (Tang et al., 2018; Deng et al., 2019; Sharma et al., 2020). However, implementing cloud storage systems adopting blockchain technology in the government sector is remains limited. Therefore, this study attempts to develop a model of the blockchain-based cloud storage system by identifying first the dominant risk factors from the implementation of the cloud storage system in the government agencies, which potentially impact their organizational performance, by taking into account a non-structural government agency in Indonesia as the case study. The findings of this study are expected to contribute insight for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers regarding the adoption of the blockchain mechanism in data storage systems to improve government agencies' organizational performance.
Cloud storage systems used in government agencies to store confidential documents are usually associated with data security, integrity, and availability. Therefore, this study attempted to identify the dominant risk factors in implementing the cloud storage system that affects the government agency’s organizational performance, in aiming to develop a framework for a cloud storage system mode that considers blockchain technology.
The development of the blockchain-based cloud storage system model was influenced by six dominant risk factors: theft and data breaches, data corruption caused by virus attacks, limited storage space, data loss caused by system damage, data being accessed without particular access rights, and lack of guarantees from the system when a security threat occurs. It can help improve the government agency’s organizational performance by providing a more efficient data delivery process. The proposed model only needs 4 days to complete a data compilation report in the case study agency compared to the conventional cloud storage system, which required 11 days. This study suggests future research is required to further develop the technical aspects of a blockchain-based storage system that can be implemented for all government agencies.
authors would like to thank the Ministry of Research and Technology, Republic
of Indonesia, for the support given to this research.
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