• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 13, No 3 (2022)

Immersive Technologies in Indonesia Faces "New Normal" COVID-19

Immersive Technologies in Indonesia Faces "New Normal" COVID-19

Title: Immersive Technologies in Indonesia Faces "New Normal" COVID-19
Dawi Karomati Baroroh, Aanchal Agarwal

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Cite this article as:
Baroroh, D.K., Agarwal, A., 2022. Immersive Technologies in Indonesia Faces "New Normal" COVID-19. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(3), pp. 633-642

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Dawi Karomati Baroroh 1. Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, College of Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Kuang-Fu Road 101 Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan 2. Department of Mechanical and I
Aanchal Agarwal Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Kuang-Fu Road 101 Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Immersive Technologies in Indonesia Faces

Indonesia is attempting to rebuild the entire country's condition to the "New Normal" era during the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the emerging technologies with significant potential for dealing with the crisis is Immersive Technology (ImTech). In Indonesia, there is a growing demand for immersive technologies such as Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR). The Indonesian government is actively prioritizing digitalization implementation in various sectors to stimulate a post-COVID-19 recovery. This study aims to map the current and potential future applications of ImTech in Indonesia about dealing with the "New Normal" following the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review (SLR) was used to analyze the publications for a thorough understanding of the existing ImTech applications in Indonesia. According to 50 papers, the ontology of current ImTech applications in Indonesia is produced, focusing on four sectors (medical, industry, tourism, and education). As indicated by the growth of "start-ups" relating to this technological application, Indonesia has enormous potential to adopt ImTech. The future application of this technology is discussed on the industrial sector.

Immersive technology (ImTech); Indonesia; Systematic literature review; Sector

Introduction

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic. COVID-19 cases are becoming more common in various regions of Indonesia, as evidenced by an increase in the number of cases and deaths caused by COVID-19. In March 2021, the daily new cases and new deaths remained high, with around 5,000 people and 200 people, respectively (WHO, 2021). The COVID-19 pandemic has had a broad impact on people's lives, including the medical, social, and economic sectors (Berawi, 2020a; Supriatna, 2020). Workers in industry and education were the hardest hit, nearly half reporting a decrease in income due to pay cuts or reduced hours of work available (Dekker, 2020).

       Indonesia is struggling to deal with the pandemic as it faces the worst economic downturn in 20 years and an increasing rate of COVID-19 infection. The government relaxed some of the country's social distancing restrictions (PSBBs) in June 2020 and opened up some sectors of the economy. President Joko Widodo described these measures as preparing for the "New Normal" (Sparrow et al., 2020). "New Normal” is a necessary remedy in an unknown pandemic. It is a shift in norms, values, and people's interactions with others and their surroundings in the “New Normal”. Even if they return to their everyday routines, each individual must do something new to change their previous behavior and habits. For one thing, gathering with colleagues has begun to be limited in the workplace, school, club, tourist, and so on (Fridayani & Iqbal, 2020).
    Working-from-home and social distancing restrictions during the "New Normal" increased Indonesia's reliance on information and communication technology (ICT), such as mobile technology, resulting in double-digit growth in the ICT area yearly. Using ICT technology to tackle global challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic can enhance productivity, increase the quality of education, improve quality of life, and promote healthy lives for everyone (Berawi, 2020b). This usage had a positive impact on employment in the sectors. However, the industry has accounted for less than 5% of GDP, and contractions in other sectors dwarfed the increase in employment. Businesses adopted ImTech in response to the widespread need for social distancing and the shift to remote work. ImTech is one of the most effective strategies for increasing human involvement and connecting employees for remote collaboration, exhibitions, and events. Currently, it has a taxonomy that consists of Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR) (Ercan, 2020).

    Compared to others, VR is a technology that is fully immersive, in which the user comes to a virtual environment generated by a computer. Therefore, it removes a genuine relationship with the real environment or low-level interaction. AR technology introduced a new way to solve VR technology problems (Ercan, 2020). This technology uses real-time interactivity and three-dimensional (3D) registration to mix computer-generated virtual things and the actual world. As a result, it is possible to increase the user interaction level, but at the same time, it will reduce the user immersion level. To overcome the immersive problem, MR combines the virtual and real worlds, supported by a high degree of connected devices to enhance a user's experience and allow for near-seamless interaction between both worlds (Rokhsaritalemi, et al., 2020; Santoso et al., 2021).
 ImTech is an emerging ICT-related technology that has significant potential for dealing with the crisis in the "New Normal". It brought up various opportunities to transform businesses, drive innovations, and enhance productivity and solutions. These technologies are becoming increasingly popular in Indonesia. Even before the pandemic, Indonesia recognized the benefits of ImTech applications. The Indonesian government is actively prioritizing digitalization implementation in various sectors to stimulate a post-COVID-19 recovery. According to a consumer survey, 63 percent of surveyed companies used immersive technologies to navigate the pandemic's challenges. The impact of AR and VR could be far-reaching, improving workplace safety and efficiency around the world. In Indonesia, VR and AR usage are not yet widespread. Respondents are enthusiastic about VR/AR possibilities, as evidenced by positive responses to questions about VR/AR applications in education, advertising, and professional work. However, because VR and AR technologies have yet to be widely adopted by Indonesian consumers, Indonesian VR/AR businesses face a long road ahead (DailySocial, 2017).
    This research focuses on mapping the current and potential applications of immersive technology in Indonesia to deal with the "New Normal" following the COVID-19 pandemic. It contributes in identifying potential future applications of ImTech in Indonesia as the country prepares for a "New Normal" and gives the future research direction. Besides, it helps to accelerate the usage and implementation of immersive technology in Indonesia, which is not only for the current condition during the "New Normal" but also for long-term planning in crucial sectors. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Following this introduction, the methods are described. We will discuss the potential mapping of ImTech in Indonesia in section 3 and conclude our study in the last section. 

Conclusion

Immersive technology is one of the technologies that can enhance user interaction by providing relevant information and making the system more appealing, informative, and interactive. It is divided into several types, including VR, AR, and MR, each with implementation differences. ImTech is becoming more popular than ever due to the increased demand for information and communication technology during the COVID-19 pandemic, notably to support remote learning and social distancing. The VR application is more popular than the AR and MR applications. Although the available devices for supporting ImTech vary, only visual modality, particularly HMD, is Indonesia's most popular device (38%). Most applications are designed to benefit the education sector (with 46%). Although ImTech in industry or business is still limited, it has enormous potential, mainly when internal and external factors are considered. Indonesia has vast potential to implement ImTech, as evidenced by the emergence of "start-ups" related to this technology application.

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