Yuana Susmiati, Bambang Purwantana, Nursigit Bintoro, Sri Rahayoe

Corresponding email: bambang_pw@ugm.ac.id

Corresponding email: bambang_pw@ugm.ac.id

**Published at : ** 01 Jul 2022

**Volume :** **IJtech**
Vol 13, No 3 (2022)

**DOI :** https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v13i3.5170

Susmiati, Y., Purwantana, B., Bintoro, N., Rahayoe, S., 2022. Heat Transfer Characteristics in Vertical Tubular Baffle Internal Reboiler through Dimensional Analysis.

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Yuana Susmiati | 1. Doctoral student of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia 2. Departemen of Renewable Energy |

Bambang Purwantana | Departement of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia |

Nursigit Bintoro | Departement of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia |

Sri Rahayoe | Departement of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia |

Abstract

Heat transfer in shell
and tube heat exchangers is in general described in terms of the relationships
of Nuselt, Prandtl, and Reynold dimensionless numbers. One of the parameters of
heat exchanger performance is convective heat transfer coefficient (*h*),
and mathematical model can predict it. This study aimed to find out the
relationship of the parameters that affected the performance of vertical
tubular baffle* *internal reboiler during ethanol distillation. The
mathematical model was developed by a dimensional analysis with the ?-Buckingham method. Several influencing
parameters during the distillation process were identified to develop a
mathematical model. The study was carried out on the distillation process of
low-concentration ethanol, i.e., 10%, 20%, 30% using internal reboilers with
different tube sizes, i.e., diameters of 1.27 cm, 2.54 cm, 3.81 cm and height
of 4 cm, 6 cm, 8 cm, to obtain the value of *h* observation. Based on the
results of the study, a heat transfer model was obtained, i.e.,, where *Nu, Re, D, L, T, C _{p}, v, ?,* and

Dimensional analysis; Internal reboiler; ?-Buckingham method

Introduction

A distillation
process is determined by the type of heat exchanger (reboiler) that serves to
heat and evaporate the distilled solution. The temperature in the reboiler is
determined by the types of the reboiler and it affects the distillation
productivity (Bhanvase
et al., 2007 and Foletto,
2015). In general,
small-scale distillation uses an internal reboiler, i.e., a heat exchanger
located in the bottom column of the distillation equipment and submerged in the
distilled solution (Bell
et al., 2011).

The types of heat
exchangers used as internal reboilers include stub in U-tube bundle reboiler (Voigt & Nj, 2013), calandria (Bhanvase et al., 2007), and vertical helical coil (Ghorbani et al., 2010). A design and test of another type of heat
exchanger with different shapes and directions of fluid flow were developed by (Susmiati et al., 2019) named vertical tubular baffle. This study showed
that the geometry (diameter, height, and the number of tubes) in this type of
heat exchanger affects the heat transfer coefficient. As explained by (Abd & Naji, 2017) the heat transfer coefficient in a heat
exchanger can be increased by increasing the tube length. (Lei et al., 2017) also stated that different baffle shapes
in a shell and tube heat exchanger produce different heat transfer
coefficients, i.e., louver baffle* *is higher than segmental baffle.

A
vertical tubular baffle* *heat exchanger as a reboiler in an ethanol
distillation process has been carried out by (Susmiati
et al., 2021) and it was found that
different reboiler geometries produced different distillation ethanol
concentrations. This shows that different geometries lead to other heat
transfer coefficients, thus leading to different productivity of the
distillation process. This is in line with (Parhi
et al., 2019) and (Badi et
al., 2021), who stated that
increasing the productivity of distillation equipment can be carried out by
optimizing reboiler heat input.

The
characteristics of a heat exchanger's performance include heat transfer rate,
heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop coefficient, and friction factor. The
heat transfer coefficient in a heat exchanger can be determined based on the
Nuselt number (Kim et
al., 2017). A study on heat transfer in spiral heat
exchangers with different impellers was done by (Rosa et
al., 2017) showing that the overall heat transfer
coefficient is a function of the Nusselt (*Nu*), Reynolds (*Re*),
Prandtl (*Pr*) numbers, and wall
temperature (*Vi*) i.e.,
on a pitched
blade turbine impeller and
on Ruston
turbine impeller*.*

The
relationship among the Nuselt, Prandtl, and Reynold dimensionless numbers can
be used to predict the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat
exchanger. The heat transfer model of a heat exchanger can be developed by
a dimensional analysis as conducted by (Lin et
al., 2007) on the characteristics of heat transfer
in corrugated channels of a plate heat exchanger. (Nakla,
2011) also developed a heat transfer model on
film boiling* *using dimensional analysis to calculate the effect of
diameter on heat transfer coefficient. Dimensional analysis is useful to
explain a phenomenon that is found in a process and described as a mathematical
model (Pexton,
2014).

Several parameters
affect the performance of a vertical tubular baffle* *internal reboiler in
an ethanol distillation process, i.e., fluid temperature (*T*), viscosity
(µ), and mass density (*?*) of fluid, diameter (*D*), and height (*L*)
of reboiler tube. For the development of the instrument, it is important to
have a model that describes the heat transfer process and the relationship
between the influencing parameters, thus helping the scale-up* *and
engineering processes. The relationship among these parameters can be
expressed in an equation of Nuselt, Prandtl, and Reynolds dimensionless numbers
with dimensional analysis. This study aimed to develop a mathematical
model of heat transfer in a vertical tubular baffle* *internal
reboiler using dimensional analysis and the Buckingham method.

Conclusion

The heat
transfer in the vertical tubular baffle internal reboiler during the ethanol
distillation process can be described in the form of a relationship of various
influencing parameters and
** **was obtained,
where *Nu, Re, D, L, T, Cp, v, ?,* and *k*, are respectively Nuselt, Reynold, tube diameter, tube height,
temperature, heat capacity, velocity, mass density, and thermal conductivity of
the fluid (material).** **The mathematical model can be used to
determine the convective heat transfer coefficient (*h*) and its validity
reaches 99%. The highest convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained
in the experiment with a reboiler that was 1.27 cm in diameter and 8 cm in
height, and a 10% material concentration, i.e., 196.19 J/m^{2}s^{o}C.

Acknowledgement

The author would like
to express her gratitude for the research funding through the program of Final
Project Recognition (RTA) of Universitas Gadjah Mada in 2019. The author would
also like to thank the technicians and managers of the Laboratory of Energy and
Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah
Mada, for the completion of this research.

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