• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 13, No 2 (2022)

Integration of Green Ergonomics in Robust Decision Making (RDM) Approach in Water Resources Management in Makassar City

Integration of Green Ergonomics in Robust Decision Making (RDM) Approach in Water Resources Management in Makassar City

Title: Integration of Green Ergonomics in Robust Decision Making (RDM) Approach in Water Resources Management in Makassar City
Zakir Sabara, Irma Nur Afiah, Rofiqul Umam

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Cite this article as:
Sabara, Z., Afiah, I.N., Umam, R. 2022. Integration of Green Ergonomics in Robust Decision Making (RDM) Approach in Water Resources Management in Makassar City. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(2), pp. 264-273

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Zakir Sabara Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia
Irma Nur Afiah Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia
Rofiqul Umam Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda, Japan
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Abstract
Integration of Green Ergonomics in Robust Decision Making (RDM) Approach in Water Resources Management in Makassar City

Water resources management has several challenges such as water stress, droughts, human contamination, increasing population, and natural calamities. Therefore, effective strategic planning is critical to minimize these challenges. Water resources for drinking water in Makassar City and other regions in Indonesia are managed by the respective vertical agencies and regional governments. The Regional Drinking Water Company of Makassar City manages the fulfillment of clean water needs for the residents of Makassar City and performs operational activities. In this study, we aimed to integrate the concept of green ergonomics as a guide to propose the basis of interventions, social responsibility, and environmental or ecospheric responsibility in water resources management. Green ergonomics is necessitated for the evaluation and sustainable development and good reciprocal relationship between human and natural systems. In addition, green ergonomics develops an understanding of how a variety of resources such as energy, biological entities, and minerals flow through work systems and integrate with the ecosystems.

Environment; Green ergonomics; Robust decision making; Water resource

Introduction

Generally, the expansion of flood areas in Makassar City is induced by a decrease in water catchment areas as a result of increased residential areas. This is due to the increasing city population on account of both births and urbanization trends. Simultaneously, due to the lack of clean water supply from two rivers, the Jeneberang River and the Lekopancing River, passing through Makassar City, there is a decrease in the quantity and quality of water. The two rivers originate from different regional government areas and create their own problems in terms of management that could potentially lead to conflicts.

        Global climate change has significantly impacted water resources, especially on the water cycle, demand, supply, and quality standards. Furthermore, the availability of clean water sources has been declining over time (Ali et al., 2018). According to (Emanuel, 2005), there are two causes of global climate change: population growth in coastal areas and natural events. This finding is in line with studies conducted by (Nelson et al., 2010), who stated that global climate change can trigger an increase in the need for clean water supplies, and (Karl, Melillo, et al., 2009; Kasayanond et al., 2019; Lange-Morales et al., 2014), who concluded that an increase in temperature results in changes in river water discharge, causing humans to need more water to grow and maintain health. Furthermore, Hartono et al. (2010) stated that water quality should be improved to meet clean water standards. To counter these challenges, an effective strategic planning is imperative. Water resources for drinking water in Makassar City and other regions in Indonesia are managed by the respective vertical agencies and regional governments. Regulatory clauses on water resources management rules are distinct, although policy implementation is not optimal when the water resources pass through territorial areas that are administratively under different regional governments.

       Green ergonomics includes several principles such as eco-efficiency, eco-effectivity, and eco-productivity (Thatcher et al., 2013). The green ergonomics approach can be applied in evaluating and developing industries to promote sustainable development. In addition, it ensures that human and natural systems maintain a good reciprocal relationship. Green ergonomics with factors of efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity move beyond the specific reference of a work system. Green ergonomics helps develop an understanding of how a variety of resources such as energy, nutrients, biological entities, and minerals flow through work systems and integrate with the ecosystems. This involves understanding the flows of life cycle transformation and their integration and understanding what happens to the “waste” generated by the system (Lange-Morales et al., 2014).
        The Regional Drinking Water Company (PDAM) of Makassar City manages the fulfillment of clean water needs for the residents of Makassar City. It also performs operational activities such as managing the distribution and service of drinking water that meets the health requirements of the society in an equitable, orderly, and regular manner and carries out sustainable and environmentally friendly urban development and services. One method that can be employed to analyze environmental problems is the Robust Decision Making (RDM) method, which is reliable in the strategic decision-making for water resources planning policies. Some studies have investigated environmental challenges and water resources management; however, they did not involve decision-making as a key strategy for solving water management challenges (Karl, Melilo, et al., 2009); (Matrosov et al., 2013); (Hidayatno et al., 2015); (Casal-Campos et al., 2015).
    This study aimed to integrate the concept of green ergonomics as a guide to propose the basis of interventions, social responsibility, and environmental or ecospheric responsibility in water resources management. Green ergonomics is also important for the evaluation and sustainable development and maintaining a good reciprocal relationship between human and natural systems. In addition, it helps develop an understanding of how a variety of resources such as energy, biological entities, and minerals flow through work systems and integrate with the ecosystems. This involves understanding the flow of the transformation life cycle and its integration (Lange-Morales et al., 2014). Consequently, it is considered necessary to combine ecological or environmental aspects with ergonomic aspects, which, in this case, is the water resources management in a work system.
 Furthermore, although several recent studies investigated water resources (Hidayatno et al., 2015; Odume & Wet, 2016; Xie et al., 2017; Knox et al., 2018; Juniati et al., 2019; Sabara et al., 2020), they did not examine the decision making in the water resources management system and did not use an approach that focuses on global environmental and climate issues filled with uncertainty. To our knowledge, this is the first research that integrates the concept of green ergonomics research on water resources management; hence, it is expected that decision-making and strategy identification can lead to efficiency and effectiveness in the work system of water resources management. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, the scenario for determining operational policies for natural resource management is influenced by conditions of low, medium, and high economic growth scenarios and political conditions, as well as climate change. It is very important to implement a short-term adaptation strategy plan as the initial basis for long-term climate change adaptation planning and to integrate it into the planning mechanism or management in the form of the PDAM Business Development Plan or RKAP and the city government’s annual and medium-term plans. Participatory Ergonomics and Environmental Ergonomics can be considered in the development of Water Resources Management in Makassar City by involving environmental factors, adjustments, and leniency.

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