• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 13, No 4 (2022)

Characterization and potential production of glass-ceramics biomaterial from basalt rock of local Lampung Province

Characterization and potential production of glass-ceramics biomaterial from basalt rock of local Lampung Province

Title: Characterization and potential production of glass-ceramics biomaterial from basalt rock of local Lampung Province
Irza Sukmana, Yusup Hendronursito, Shirley Savetlana, Kusno Isnugroho, Muhammad Amin, David Candra Birawidha

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Cite this article as:
Sukmana, I., Hendronursito, Y., Savetlana, S., Isnugroho, K., Amin, M., Birawidha, D.C., 2022. Characterization and potential production of glass-ceramics biomaterial from basalt rock of local Lampung Province. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(4), pp. 870-879

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Irza Sukmana Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Soemantri Brojonegoro No.1, Bandar Lampung 35143, Indonesia
Yusup Hendronursito 1. Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Soemantri Brojonegoro No.1, Bandar Lampung 35143, Indonesia 2. Mining Technology Research Center – National R
Shirley Savetlana Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Soemantri Brojonegoro No.1, Bandar Lampung 35143, Indonesia
Kusno Isnugroho Mining Technology Research Center – National Research and Innovation Agency, Jl. Ir. Sutami Km. 15 Tanjung Bintang, Lampung Selatan 35361, Indonesia
Muhammad Amin Mining Technology Research Center – National Research and Innovation Agency, Jl. Ir. Sutami Km. 15 Tanjung Bintang, Lampung Selatan 35361, Indonesia
David Candra Birawidha Mining Technology Research Center – National Research and Innovation Agency, Jl. Ir. Sutami Km. 15 Tanjung Bintang, Lampung Selatan 35361, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Characterization and potential production of glass-ceramics biomaterial from basalt rock of local Lampung Province

Glass-ceramics were fine-grained polycrystalline materials produced by controlled crystallization in the glass phase to have outstanding characteristics. The establishment of basalt from Sukadana - Lampung Province into glass-ceramic begins with the process of reduced size and milled under 200 mesh using an ASTM sieve. The initiated glass-ceramics formation was created by melting the basalt powder at a temperature of 1,250oC for 2hrs to obtain the glass phase. Glass parent crystallization begins with the stage of nucleation growth. The nucleation process occurs at a temperature 600oC for 1hr. The crystallization temperature at variations of 850, 950, or 1,050oC for 3 and 8hrs. The mechanical hardness test result was 637.28 HV1N of the sample with 1,050oC heating for 3hrs. The highest hardness value is at 837.33 HV1N for a sample of 1,050oC heating for 8hrs. The hardness value was decreased at samples for 3hrs heating, while it increased for 8hrs of a heating process. All of the heating treatments formed olivine and Anorthite phase but a pyroxene phase was initiated from 950oC heating process for 3hrs. The use of glass ceramic as an engineering material and biomaterials are promising. It is necessary to continue the development studies on the production process of local basalt resources.

Basalt; Crystallization; Glass ceramics; Hardness; Phase

Introduction

Glass-ceramics (G.C.s) were fine-grained polycrystalline materials produced by controlled crystallization in the glass phase (Rawlings et al., 2006). G.C.s are preferred for wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant electronics and medicine materials (Yilmaz et al., 2006). G.C.s can be produced by materials such as TiO2-SiO2 (Kusrini et al., 2017), SnO2 and amorphous silica xerogel (S.X.) (Aripin et al., 2016) until waste-based materials (Rawlings et al., 2006).

    G.C.s can be produced by sintered basalt. Basalt glass ceramics (BGCs) are used in many applications. For example, as a coating (Ate? et al., 2017; Yilmaz et al., 2006), bio-ceramics for an implant (SDVOSB, 2018), and for reinforcing material (Boshytska et al., 2017; Kaplunenko et al., 2016). The BGCs have a homogeneous structure of finely dispersed crystals (Yilmaz et al., 1996). Basaltic tuff was sintered at a temperature of 1,100oC showing a similar structure to G.C.s and has characteristic 8-9% closed porosity and zero water absorption. The crystalline phase consisted of pyroxene, anorthite, spinel, and hematite. The BGCs with suitable properties such as a bending strength of 100 MPa and a elasticity modulus of 90 GPa (Karamanov et al., 2009). Compared with G.C.s from soda-lime-silica on the market, the BGCs are of great economic, technological, and scientific importance (Lopes & Shelby, 2005). BGCs have an extensive and low production cost with excellent mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties (Todic et al., 2011). The application of G.C.s in biomaterials can be divided into two groups: bone implant and dental restoration. G.C.s are a group of bioceramics potentially used for scaffolding (Habibie et al., 2019). Recent studies present the G.C.s in bone regeneration and tissue engineering (Lima et al., 2020).
        Basalt is a volcanic igneous rock formed from the rapidly cooling of magma on the earth's surface. In the field of advanced materials, basalt can be used in the form of cast basalt (Isnugroho et al., 2020), fiber (Ivanitskii & Gorbachev, 2011), and composites (Subagia et al., 2017). In Indonesia, basalt is traditionally only used as a building material (Isnugroho et al., 2018). In less than the last five years, basalt in Indonesia has begun to be used as an advanced material, including as a substitute material for cement clinker (Amin et al., 2020), soil fertilizer (Hendronursito et al., 2019), PCC aggregate materials (Rajiman et al., 2018), and filler for paving block material (Muttaqii et al., 2020).
    This study aims to determine the potential use of basalt rock from the Sukadana area in Lampung Province for G.C.s biomaterial application.

Conclusion

The chemical and mineral composition of Sukadana - East Lampung basalt allows the formation of glass-ceramics at relatively low temperatures. The anorthite phase present in all samples. Basalt melts have the ability to produce glass-ceramics. The crystalline phase significantly influences the hardness of glass-ceramics. East Lampung basalt has a high iron oxide content which affects of the glass-ceramics hardness. Glass-ceramics with high iron oxides have a bubble structure in the form of glass. Besides being seen in the topography through the SEM test, low mechanical properties are also characterized by the presence of a more dominant olivine (fayalite) phase. The longer holding time provides sufficient time for the crystallization process to occur with the dominant pyroxene phase. This causes the formed glass-ceramics to have a high hardness with a finer structure. Glass-ceramics made from Sukadana Basalt have good properties and can be developed as bioceramics that require high hardness.

Acknowledgement

    This research was supported in some parts by the BLU Universitas Lampung of “Penelitian Terapan” grant FY 2021 contract no. 1583/UN26.21/PN/2021. The authors acknowledge the facilities, scientific and technical support from Advanced Characterization Laboratories Lampung, National Research and Innovation Agency through E- Layanan Sains, Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional. 

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