• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 13, No 2 (2022)

Experimental Investigation of Added Resistance of a Ship using a Hydroelastic Body in Waves

Experimental Investigation of Added Resistance of a Ship using a Hydroelastic Body in Waves

Title: Experimental Investigation of Added Resistance of a Ship using a Hydroelastic Body in Waves
Suandar Baso, Andi Ardianti, Andi Dian Eka Anggriani, Rosmani Rosmani, Lukman Bochary

Corresponding email:


Cite this article as:
Baso, S., Ardianti, A., Anggriani, A.D.E., Rosmani, R., Bochary, L., 2022. Experimental Investigation of Added Resistance of a Ship using a Hydroelastic Body in Waves. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(2), pp. 332-344

222
Downloads
Suandar Baso Naval Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
Andi Ardianti Naval Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
Andi Dian Eka Anggriani Naval Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
Rosmani Rosmani Naval Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
Lukman Bochary Naval Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Experimental Investigation of Added Resistance of a Ship using a Hydroelastic Body in Waves

Ship resistance is an important characteristic to predict in the preliminary design stage. Proper prediction of ship resistance implies the fulfillment of the required speed and power of a ship. The assumed body characteristics of a ship model should also be properly considered when investigating ship resistance. In the present study, the assumption of a hydroelastic body for a ship model was used in an experiment on total ship resistance and added resistance in calm water and waves. Two hydroelastic models were used: a hydroelastic body with a bulbous bow (HB) and a hydroelastic body without a bulbous bow (HWB). The wavelength considered ranged from 0.5 L to 1.3 L, and the Froude number (Fn) considered ranged from 0.058 to 0.232. In the presented results, the total resistance coefficient of the HWB was higher than that of a rigid body without a bulbous bow (RWB). The average difference of magnitude between the HWB and RWB was 30.49% for calm water conditions and 30.37% for overall wave conditions. The total resistance of the HB was higher than that of the rigid body with a bulbous bow (RB), and the difference of magnitude was approximately 31.47% for calm water conditions and 31.68% for overall wave conditions. The added resistance coefficient of the HWB tended to increase with an increase in the wavelength, from 0.5 L to 1.1 L, and then decrease until 1.5 L. The overall tendency of the added resistance coefficient of the HB was significantly different from the other numerical results. Although the tendencies were different, most of the presented results were in the same range as the other numerical results.

Added resistance; Hydroelastic body; Rigid body; Ship resistance experiment; Total resistance

Introduction

A ship in waves experiences certain phenomena due to extreme ship?wave interactions, and this condition can lead to dangerous risks. Although a ship has an internal ability to counter some external disturbances, regardless of its performance, there are limitations. For this reason, the performance of a ship can be improved in many ways through the body form design, structural design, additional appendages, etc. Therefore, a proper ship design is very desirable and should be focused foremost on ship hydrodynamic considerations.

The proper prediction of the resistance of a ship design has implications for the ship’s operational cost. Therefore, added resistance due to waves must be predicted simultaneously with resistance in calm water.

In the past decade, there have been several investigations of the added resistance of a ship in waves, both short and long waves (Duan & Li, 2013; Ageno et al., 2015; Chen & Duan, 2015; el Moctar et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2015; Park et al., 2016; Sigmund & el Moctar, 2018; Park et al., 2019a), regular incident waves (Cepowski, 2016; Ozdemir & Barlas, 2017; Kim et al., 2017(c); Kim et al., 2017a; Kim et al., 2017b; Lee et al., 2019; Cepowski, 2020), irregular waves (Cepowski, 2020), in the presence of wind?wave loads (Kim et al., 2017b; Wang et al., 2019), and oblique waves (Kim et al., 2017b; Islam et al., 2019; Park et al., 2019a).

Besides the consideration of the influence of waves and wave-induced motions on added resistance, the influences of internal aspects of the ship have been taken into account as well, focusing on large blunt ship designs (Duan & Li, 2013; Chen & Duan, 2015), speed (Duan & Li, 2013; Cepowski, 2016; Ozdemir & Barlas, 2017; Kim et al., 2017c; Kim et al., 2017a; Kim et al., 2017b; Cepowski, 2020), ship type (el Moctar et al., 2015; Cepowski, 2016; Park et al., 2016; Sigmund & el Moctar, 2018; Islam et al., 2019; Lee et al., 2019; Park et al., 2019a; Wang et al., 2019), sectional form (Liu et al., 2015), and geometrical parameters (Cepowski, 2016; Cepowski, 2020).

Some methods that have been used to predict added resistance have been widely discussed, including the radiated energy theory along with the strip method (Duan & Li, 2013; Park et al., 2016; Park et al., 2019a), second-order Taylor Expansion Boundary Element Method/TEBEM (Chen & Duan, 2015), RANS (el Moctar et al., 2015; Sigmund & el Moctar, 2018; Islam et al., 2019), analytical and semi-empirical formulas (Liu et al., 2015), the Rankine panel method (Ageno et al., 2015; Park et al., 2016; Park et al., 2019a), finite volume CFD code (Ozdemir & Barlas, 2017), artificial neural networks (Cepowski, 2016; Cepowski, 2020), URANS (Kim et al., 2017c; Lee et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2019), URANS CFD and 3D potential methods (Kim et al., 2017a; Kim et al., 2017b). The use of these methods has yielded accurate results and, when compared with experimental results, they seem to be in good agreement.

The assumption of a rigid body in the prediction of resistance and added wave resistance has been widely used. However, the influence of a hydroelastic body in these predictions has not been considered, even though it is real. Meanwhile, other investigations of ship?wave interactions, including induced motions, slamming impact, and whipping impact, consider the assumption of a hydroelastic body, and this assumption has been adopted widely. In general, a rigid body, due to ship?wave interaction, experiences small deformation, but the interaction is affected not only by the body's deformation but also by water deformation. Therefore, water deformation due to ship?wave interaction inevitably influences the ship's added resistance. To consider water deformation, hydrodynamic analysis of ships in the investigation of added resistance should be considered in both numerical methods and experimental work. However, so far, the added resistance of a hydroelastic body or a flexible body has been investigated only rarely. A segmented barge was considered in a hydroelastic analysis wherein additional resistance due to pontoon motion was induced by the relative angular velocity (Senjanovic et al., 2017), but this was discussed only briefly. In another study, the added resistance of a flexible ship was investigated numerically, and the deformation and added resistance obtained were small (Park et al., 2019b), but the added resistance was not validated with experimental data.

As an encapsulation of the above statements, the prediction of the wave-induced resistance of a ship remains challenging. With the objective of a systematic investigation of ship resistance and added resistance, the assumption of a hydroelastic body should be considered to enhance the ship's body characteristics as well as to obtain some interpretation of the influence of a hydroelastic body on resistance and added resistance in waves, after which the hydrodynamic interpretation can be considered to produce a proper ship design in the preliminary design stage. Therefore, in the present study, the resistance and added resistance of a ship were investigated experimentally. For the experimental investigation, the ship model was divided into several segmented bodies considered as a hydroelastic body. Also, the resistance and added resistance of a rigid model were investigated experimentally for comparison with the resistance and added resistance of the hydroelastic body.


Conclusion

        Resistance tests of a model ship using a rigid body and a hydroelastic body in calm water and waves were performed successfully. The investigation of the total resistance and the added resistance due to the hydroelastic body was discussed, and the influence of the hydroelastic body on the magnitude of the resistance and added resistance was investigated. In this present study, the notable contributions were presented accordingly. The total resistance in calm water and waves, for the hydroelastic body, significantly increased with both increasing Fn and increasing wavelength at a constant Fn. The tendency of the total resistance using the hydroelastic body was similar to that of the rigid body. Using the hydroelastic body without a bulbous bow, the increase of total resistance in calm water and waves was an average of 30.49% and 30.37%, respectively. Meanwhile, using the hydroelastic body with a bulbous bow, the increase of the total resistance in calm water and waves was an average of 31.47% and 31.68%, respectively. The added resistance coefficient of the hydroelastic body with and without a bulbous bow tended to increase with an increase of the wavelength, from 0.5 L to 1.1 L, and then decrease until 1.5 L. The peak of the added resistance coefficient of both the hydroelastic body with and without a bulbous bow occurred at 1.1 L. The overall results showed the same tendencies as the rigid body as well as confirming a good agreement with other numerical results. The effect of the hydroelastic body on ship resistance was the same as that for the rigid body, and this behavior was also the same in the added resistance investigation.

Acknowledgement

Ageno, E., Begovic, E., Bruzzone, D., Galli, A.M., Gualeni, P., 2015. A Boundary Element Method for Motions and Added Resistance of Ships in Waves. Transactions of Famena, 39(2), pp. 1–12

Cepowski, T., 2016. Approximating the Added Resistance Coefficient for a Bulk Carrier Sailing in Head Sea Conditions Based on Its Geometrical Parameters and Speed. Polish Maritime Research, Volume 23(4), pp. 8–15

Chen, J., Duan, W., 2015. Added Resistance Simulation of Blunt Ship in Short Wave. In: Proceedings of the 30th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Bristol, United Kingdom, pp. 12–15

Cepowski, T., 2020. The Prediction of Ship Added Resistance at the Preliminary Design Stage by the Use of an Artificial Neural Network. Ocean Engineering, Volume 195, pp. 1–14

Duan, W., Li, C., 2013. Estimation of Added Resistance for Large Blunt Ship in Waves. Journal of Marine Science and Application, Volume 12, pp. 1–12

el Moctar, O., Sigmund, S., Schellin, T.E., 2015. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Added Resistance of Ships in Waves. In: Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, May 31?June 5

Islam, H., Rahaman, M.M., Akimoto, H., 2019. Added Resistance Prediction of KVLCC2 in Oblique Waves. American Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 9(1), pp. 13–26

Kashiwagi, M., 2013. Hydrodynamic Study on Added Resistance Using Unsteady Wave Analysis. Journal of Ship Research, Volume 57(4), pp. 220–240

Kim, M., Hizir, O., Turan, O., Incecik, A., 2017a. Numerical Studies on Added Resistance and Motions of KVLCC2 in Head Seas for Various Ship Speeds. Ocean Engineering, Volume 140, pp. 466–276

Kim, M., Hizir, O., Turan, O., Day, S., Incecik, A., 2017b. Estimation of Added Resistance and Ship Speed Loss in Seaway. Ocean Engineering, Volume 141, pp. 465–476

Kim, Y.C., Kim, K.S., Kim, J., Kim, Y., Park, R., Jang, Y.H., 2017c. Analysis of Added Resistance and Seakeeping Responses in Head Sea Conditions for Low-Speed Full Ships Using URANS Approach. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 9(6), pp. 641–654

Lee, C.M., Park, S.C., Yu, J.W., Choi, J.E., Lee, I., 2019. Effects of Diffraction in Regular Head Waves on Added Resistance and Wake Using CFD. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 11(2), pp. 736–749

Liu, S., Papanikolaou, A., Zaraphonitis, G., 2015. Practical Approach to the Added Resistance of a Ship in Short Waves. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, 21?26 June, pp. 11-18

Ozdemir, Y.H., Barlas, B., 2017. Numerical Study of Ship Motions and Added Resistance in Regular Incident Waves of KVLCC2 Model. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 9(2), pp. 1–11

Park, D.M., Kim, Y., Seo, M.G., Lee, J., 2016. Study on Added Resistance of a Tanker in Head Waves at Different Drafts. Ocean Engineering, Volume 111, pp. 569–581

Park, D.M., Lee, J.H., Jung, Y.W., Lee, J., Kim, Y., Gerhardt, F., 2019a. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Added Resistance of Ship in Oblique Sea Conditions. Ocean Engineering, Volume 186, pp. 1–14

Park, D.M., Kim, J.H., Kim, Y., 2019b. Numerical Study of Added Resistance of Flexible Ship. Journal of Fluids Structures, Volume 85(3), pp. 199219

Senjanovic, I., Malenica, S., Tomasevic, S., Rudan, S., 2017. Methodology of Ship Hydroelasticity Investigation. Brodogradnja, Volume 58(2), pp. 133–145

Sigmund, S., el Moctar, O., 2018. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Added Resistance of Different Ship Types in Short and Long Waves. Ocean Engineering, Volume 147, pp. 51–67

Suastika, K., Hidayat, A., Riyadi, S., 2017. Effects of the Application of a Stern Foil on Ship Resistance: A Case Study of an Orela Crew Boat. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 12661275

Utama, I.K.A.P., Sutiyo, Suastika, K., 2021. Experimental and Numerical Investigation into the Effect of the Axe-Bow on the Drag Reduction of a Trimaran Configuration. International Journal of Technology, Volume 12(3), pp. 527538

Valanto, P., Hong, Y.P., 2015. Experimental Investigation on Ship Wave Added Resistance in Regular Head, Oblique, Beam, and Following Waves. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, 21?26 June, pp. 19–26

Wang, W., Wu, T., Zhao, D., Guo, C., Luo, W., Pang, Y., 2019. Experimental–Numerical Analysis of Added Resistance to Container Ships Under Presence of Wind–Wave Loads. PloS ONE, Volume 14, pp. 1–29

Yanuar, Gunawan, Utomo, A.S.A., Luthfi, M.N., Baezal, M.A.B., Majid, F.R.S., Chairunisa, Z., 2020. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Total Hull Resistance on Floating Catamaran Pontoon for N219 Seaplanes based on Biomimetics Design with Clearance Configuration. International Journal of Technology, Volume 11(7), pp. 13971405

References

Ageno, E., Begovic, E., Bruzzone, D., Galli, A.M., Gualeni, P., 2015. A Boundary Element Method for Motions and Added Resistance of Ships in Waves. Transactions of Famena39(2), pp. 1–12

Cepowski, T., 2016. Approximating the Added Resistance Coefficient for a Bulk Carrier Sailing in Head Sea Conditions Based on Its Geometrical Parameters and Speed. Polish Maritime Research, Volume 23(4), pp. 8–15

Chen, J., Duan, W., 2015. Added Resistance Simulation of Blunt Ship in Short Wave. In: Proceedings of the 30th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Bristol, United Kingdom, pp. 12–15

Cepowski, T., 2020. The Prediction of Ship Added Resistance at the Preliminary Design Stage by the Use of an Artificial Neural Network. Ocean Engineering, Volume 195, pp. 1–14

Duan, W., Li, C., 2013. Estimation of Added Resistance for Large Blunt Ship in Waves. Journal of Marine Science and Application, Volume 12, pp. 1–12

el Moctar, O., Sigmund, S., Schellin, T.E., 2015. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Added Resistance of Ships in Waves. In: Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, May 31?June 5

Islam, H., Rahaman, M.M., Akimoto, H.2019. Added Resistance Prediction of KVLCC2 in Oblique Waves. American Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Volume 9(1), pp. 13–26

Kashiwagi, M., 2013. Hydrodynamic Study on Added Resistance Using Unsteady Wave Analysis. Journal of Ship Research, Volume 57(4), pp. 220–240

Kim, M., Hizir, O., Turan, O., Incecik, A., 2017a. Numerical Studies on Added Resistance and Motions of KVLCC2 in Head Seas for Various Ship Speeds. Ocean Engineering, Volume 140, pp. 466–276

Kim, M., Hizir, O., Turan, O., Day, S., Incecik, A., 2017b. Estimation of Added Resistance and Ship Speed Loss in Seaway. Ocean Engineering, Volume 141, pp. 465–476

Kim, Y.C., Kim, K.S., Kim, J., Kim, Y., Park, R., Jang, Y.H., 2017c. Analysis of Added Resistance and Seakeeping Responses in Head Sea Conditions for Low-Speed Full Ships Using URANS Approach. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 9(6), pp. 641–654

Lee, C.M., Park, S.C., Yu, J.W., Choi, J.E., Lee, I., 2019. Effects of Diffraction in Regular Head Waves on Added Resistance and Wake Using CFD. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 11(2), pp. 736–749

Liu, S., Papanikolaou, A., Zaraphonitis, G., 2015. Practical Approach to the Added Resistance of a Ship in Short Waves. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, 21?26 June, pp. 11-18

Ozdemir, Y.H., Barlas, B., 2017. Numerical Study of Ship Motions and Added Resistance in Regular Incident Waves of KVLCC2 Model. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 9(2), pp. 1–11

Park, D.M., Kim, Y., Seo, M.G., Lee, J., 2016. Study on Added Resistance of a Tanker in Head Waves at Different Drafts. Ocean Engineering, Volume 111, pp. 569–581

Park, D.M., Lee, J.H., Jung, Y.W., Lee, J., Kim, Y., Gerhardt, F., 2019a. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Added Resistance of Ship in Oblique Sea Conditions. Ocean Engineering, Volume 186, pp. 1–14

Park, D.M., Kim, J.H., Kim, Y., 2019b. Numerical Study of Added Resistance of Flexible Ship. Journal of Fluids Structures, Volume 85(3), pp. 199219

Senjanovic, I., Malenica, S., Tomasevic, S., Rudan, S., 2017. Methodology of Ship Hydroelasticity Investigation. Brodogradnja, Volume 58(2), pp. 133–145

Sigmund, S., el Moctar, O., 2018. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Added Resistance of Different Ship Types in Short and Long Waves. Ocean Engineering, Volume 147, pp. 51–67

Suastika, K., Hidayat, A., Riyadi, S., 2017. Effects of the Application of a Stern Foil on Ship Resistance: A Case Study of an Orela Crew Boat. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 12661275

Utama, I.K.A.P., Sutiyo, Suastika, K., 2021. Experimental and Numerical Investigation into the Effect of the Axe-Bow on the Drag Reduction of a Trimaran Configuration. International Journal of Technology, Volume 12(3), pp. 527538

Valanto, P., Hong, Y.P., 2015. Experimental Investigation on Ship Wave Added Resistance in Regular Head, Oblique, Beam, and Following Waves. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, 21-26 June, pp. 19–26

Wang, W., Wu, T., Zhao, D., Guo, C., Luo, W., Pang, Y., 2019. Experimental–Numerical Analysis of Added Resistance to Container Ships Under Presence of Wind–Wave Loads. PloS ONE, Volume 14, pp. 1–29

Yanuar, Gunawan, Utomo, A.S.A., Luthfi, M.N., Baezal, M.A.B., Majid, F.R.S., Chairunisa, Z., 2020. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Total Hull Resistance on Floating Catamaran Pontoon for N219 Seaplanes based on Biomimetics Design with Clearance Configuration. International Journal of Technology, Volume 11(7), pp. 13971405