• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 13, No 1 (2022)

The Effects of Modified Chitosan on the Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar

The Effects of Modified Chitosan on the Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar

Title: The Effects of Modified Chitosan on the Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar
Lyazzat Bekbayeva, El-Sayed Negim, Rimma Niyazbekova , Zhanar Kaliyeva, Gulzhakhan Yeligbayeva, J. Khatib

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Bekbayeva, L., Negim, E., Niyazbekova , R., Kaliyeva, Z., Yeligbayeva, G., Khatib, J., 2022. The Effects of Modified Chitosan on the Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(1), pp. 125-135

Lyazzat Bekbayeva School of Chemical and Biological Technologies, Satbayev University, 22 Satpayev Street, 050013 Almaty, Kazakhstan
El-Sayed Negim Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technology, Kazakh-British Technical University, 59 Tole bi St., 050000, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Rimma Niyazbekova Technical Faculty, Saken Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Astana, 010011, Zhenis avenue, 62, Kazakhstan
Zhanar Kaliyeva Technology of Industrial and Civil Building, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Str. Satpayev 2, Astana, Kazakhstan
Gulzhakhan Yeligbayeva School of Petroleum Engineering, Satbayev University, 22 Satpayev Street, 050013 Almaty, Kazakhstan
J. Khatib Faculty of Engineering, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon
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The Effects of Modified Chitosan on the Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar

This paper reports a study on producing admixtures from chitosan (Ch) obtained from shrimp shell treatment. The admixtures (Ch-g-AA) were based on chitosan (Ch) and acrylic acid (AA) in the following composition ratios: 65/35, 50/50, and 35/65. The grafted copolymers were synthesized using grafting polymerization and potassium persulphate as the initiator. This study investigated the properties of mortars in the presence of grafted copolymers, including setting time, workability, water absorption, and compressive strength. The results showed that grafted copolymers premixed with mortar mixes improved the properties of the mortar. However, increasing the AA ratio in the grafted copolymer decreased the W/C ratio, setting time, and water absorption, whereas the fluidity and compressive strength increased.

Acrylic acid; Chitosan; Copolymer; Grafted; Mortar


        At present, research in the field of admixtures for construction materials based on polymeric compounds has gained increasing significance and attention (Ariffin et al., 2015; Ke, 2019). These compounds are used in various spheres as additives because they impart unique properties, including workability, compressive strength, durability, water/cement ratio, water absorption, and porosity (Mignon et al., 2016). Thus, polymers have become more monolithic regarding impermeability, frost resistance, and tensile strength. In addition, bending has increased in cement pastes, mortars, and concretes. Several researchers have investigated the effects of different polymers, including acrylic, polyurethane, epoxy, and chitosan, on the physicomechanical properties of cement pastes, mortars, and concretes (Negim et al., 2013; Bezerra, 2016; Bekbayeva, 2020a; 2020b). Chitosan (CS) is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed deacetylated (?-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine) and acetylated units based on D-glucosamine (Pillai et al., 2009; Bezerra et al., 2011; Lasheras-Zubiate et al., 2011; Vys?var?il and Z?iz?lavsky?, 2017). Polymeric resins are chosen according to mortar type based on several factors, including functional groups, polymer types, molar ratio, pH, viscosity, and polymer dosage (Ukrainczyk and Rogina, 2013; Govin et al., 2016; Wuju et al., 2020). The presence of amino groups in chitosan enables its use in many applications, including bio cement, dental bio cement, and additives to cement-based materials. The effects of chitosan and chitosan derivatives on the properties of cements and mortars have been reported. For example, Lasheras-Zubiate et al. (2012) studied the effects of the addition of two nonionic chitosan derivatives (hydroxypropyl and hydroxyethyl chitosan) and one ionic derivative (carboxymethyl chitosan) on the properties of cement mortar. Ionic chitosan derivatives were more effective than nonionic derivatives, acted as good thickeners, and reduced the workability of cement mortar because of the delay in the hydration of cement particles. Ustinova and Nikiforova (2016) investigated the effects of hydroxypropyl chitosan on cementitious materials and found that viscosity and water retention values increased. However, when used in lime mortars, it showed the same results but with lower efficiency (Z?iz?lavsky? et al., 2019). Yulia and Tamara (2016) reported that chitosan added to cement did not reduce the cement’s strength compared with a synthetic polymer additive based on polyethylhydrosiloxan. In addition, the amount of chitosan (0.6–1.0% based on cement mass) increased the resistance of the cement compositions to alternate freezing and thawing. Bezerra et al. (2011) reported that the utilization of chitosan as an admixture in cement paste reduced porosity, increased viscosity, and improved strength, whereas the addition of chitosan had an adverse impact on the properties of the cement. Shenghua et al. (2014) reported that chitosan modified by amidation and sulfonation through a reaction with maleic anhydride had a high water-reducing ratio, fluidity, and compressive strength at a low water/cement ratio. With the addition of latex and chitosan to concrete, compressive and tensile strengths decreased by 14% and 24%, respectively, compared with the control (Ulisses et al., 2011). The primary mechanism of the action of polymer additives in cement systems is that they form a polymer film on the surface of the grains of cement, sand, and capillaries, which promotes the adhesion of sand to cement particles (Negim et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2018; Muntohar et al., 2020). Thus, polymers have become more monolithic regarding impermeability, frost resistance, tensile strength, and bending increases in cement paste, mortar, and concrete. Bekbayeva et al. (2020a) modified chitosan by grafting with acrylic acid in different ratios to clarify the effects of three different composition ratios of chitosan-g-acrylic acid, P[Ch-g-AA], on the physical and mechanical properties of cement pastes. They found that as the AA ratios in the grafted copolymer increased, the water-to-cement (WC) ratio, setting time, and water absorption decreased. In contrast, compressive strength sharply increased at almost all hydration ages. Their work was further extended to investigate the effects of modified chitosan on the properties of mortar, which is the subject of the present investigation.


    The properties of mortar containing grafted copolymers were investigated. The grafted copolymers were based on the different composition ratios of Ch and AA. The results showed that the W/C ratio decreased as the AA ratio increased in the grafted copolymers. The compressive strength and workability of mortar premixed with grafted copolymers increased in the OH, NH, and COOH groups, and branched chains pierced the liquid phase to disperse the effects of copolymer particles among the cement particles. In addition, the setting times (initial and final) were lengthened, while water absorption decreased as the AA ratio increased in the grafted copolymers.


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