|Aneta Ocieczek||Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Management and Quality Science, Morska Street, 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland|
|Halina Makala||Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Division of Meat and Fat Technology, Jubilerska Street, 4, 04-190 Warszawa, Poland|
|Anna Flis||Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Management and Quality Science, Morska Street, 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland|
study aimed to compare the sorption properties of four dietary fiber
preparations made of cereals (wheat and oats), vegetables (carrot), and root
plants (potato). The sorption isotherm was determined using the standard
static-desiccator method. The initial experimental results were compared
statistically and then subjected to transformation using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller
model (BET model). A new approach to the research problem involved determining the
high-fiber preparations’ functional properties using sorptive methods. These
properties, owing to the preparations’ various water-binding capabilities,
depended on both their chemical composition and physical structure. Carrot
fiber is characterized by significantly higher sorption properties compared to the
other tested preparations. The study’s experimental results indicate a broad
range of possibilities for modifying food properties using dietary fibers
derived from various raw materials, differing significantly in their susceptibility
to interact with water.
Functional properties; Micronization; Quality modeling
Dietary fiber’s importance in everyday diets has spurred great interest among dietitians, food scientists, and food technologists alike in Poland. This interest has manifested in updates to dietary guidelines published by the National Institute of Food and Nutrition (I??) for the entire Polish population (NCE? I??, 2016) and individual population groups, including elders (NCE? I??, 2018) and children and adolescents (NCE? I??, 2019), and dietary fiber intake is deemed essential in these publications. The problem of an insufficient supply of dietary fiber with diets based primarily on processed foods is crucial, given the populations’ health (especially in developed countries), and it poses a severe challenge to the industry, which had been closely observing changes in consumption trends and recommended daily intakes for essential food nutrients. In most developed countries, including Poland, dietary fiber intake fails to meet the recommended level of 20 g per day (Krusi?ska et al., 2017) and correlates with the incidences of many diet-related diseases (Liu et al., 2015).
fiber is not a homogenous substance but, rather, represents a group of compounds metabolized by the human body that are resistant to enzymatic
hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. The functional properties of dietary
fiber—including health-promoting properties—are strictly linked to its
structure, the contents of its individual components, its origins, and its extraction
method. Its key properties include water holding capacity (i.e., the ability to
absorb and mechanically retain water), binding cations, binding bile acids and
their salts in the intestines, and viscous substances’ formation (Cie?lik and Topolska, 2002; Maka?a, 2003).
Comparing different fiber preparations is important due to the increasing variety of these types of fiber preparations on the market. Fiber is not a homogeneous substance, and it may show various functional properties. Dietary fiber is a by-product that can be obtained during the processing of various plant materials. Although it has no nutritional properties, it can be used in its pure form (e.g., to shape such food qualities as satiation) (Ocieczek and Urban-Rajniak, 2018). These properties have been revealed to result from the specific microstructure of fiber particles’ surface, which allows the fiber to easily interact with water. In its crude form, as a by-product, it can be used as a sorbent in water purification. In this use, the particles’ surface microstructure and their ability to interact with water are also important (Ajayi-Banji et al., 2016).
The important role that dietary fiber plays in human nutrition is due to its ability to bind water in the gastrointestinal tract lumen, positively affecting the final stage of the digestive process. In populations whose fiber intake is high, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and gastrointestinal cancers is significantly lower. Dietary fiber also exhibits prebiotic and texture-forming properties. It is recommended as a modifier of foods’ physical properties (e.g., in confectionery, dairy, fat, and meat products, in food concentrates, and in dietetic foods) (Maka?a and Ocieczek, 2008; O’Shea et al., 2012; Hemati Matin et al., 2013; Zhuang et al., 2016).
The market offers a broad range of high-fiber preparations and foods with added fiber. These products are produced using parts of cereals, fruits, vegetables, wastes from fruit and vegetable processing, and wastes from the grain and milling industry. Their industrial utility is predicated on the sensory properties of the raw material that the fiber was extracted from, production technology, individual fiber content fractions, degrees of micronization, and health-promoting properties.
Cereal preparations rich in dietary fiber feature fractions of both water-soluble and insoluble fiber. The insoluble components (i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose) are used as dietary supplements, supporting weight loss mainly through their influence on peristalsis stimulation and faster food passage (Anio?a, 2019). In turn, the ?-glucans of—for example—oats, positively affect carbohydrate metabolism and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer development, particularly colon cancer (Álvarez and Barbut, 2013).
High-fiber preparations produced from vegetables—usually from pomace, a waste product from the vegetable processing industry—have relatively high soluble dietary fiber content, mainly including pectin. Therefore, they can improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the human body. They also positively influence food products’ sensory properties (Lara-Espinoza et al., 2018).
Fiber preparations produced from root vegetables—including, for example, potato pulp, which is used as a raw material to produce potato fiber—promote the development of beneficial bacterial strains in the intestines (Anio?a, 2019). Moreover, they bind and remove toxins from the alimentary tracts (Anio?a, 2019).
raw material types and parameters of the micronization technological process
affect the microstructure of a finished dietary fiber preparation and determine
its ability to interact with water. Knowledge of the parameters describing the
tested dietary fiber preparations’ sorption properties will be used to evaluate
their capability of causing satiety as an innovative food quality parameter in
work was supported by grant no. WPiT/2020/PZ/05.
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