• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 13, No 1 (2022)

Few-Layer Wrinkled Graphene (FLwG) Obtained from Coconut-Shell-Based Charcoal using a High-Voltage Plasma Method

Few-Layer Wrinkled Graphene (FLwG) Obtained from Coconut-Shell-Based Charcoal using a High-Voltage Plasma Method

Title: Few-Layer Wrinkled Graphene (FLwG) Obtained from Coconut-Shell-Based Charcoal using a High-Voltage Plasma Method
Fri Murdiya, Yola Bertilsya Hendri, Amir Hamzah, Neni Frimayanti, Amun Amri

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Cite this article as:
Murdiya, F., Bertilsya Hendri, Y., Hamzah, A., Frimayanti, N., Amri, A., 2022. Few-Layer Wrinkled Graphene (FLwG) Obtained from Coconut-Shell-Based Charcoal using a High-Voltage Plasma Method. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(1), pp. 157-167

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Fri Murdiya Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya Panam, Riau 28239, Indonesia
Yola Bertilsya Hendri Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya Panam, Riau 28239, Indonesia
Amir Hamzah Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya Panam, Riau 28239, Indonesia
Neni Frimayanti Department of Pharmacy, Riau College of Pharmacy (STIFAR), Jl. Kamboja Panam, Riau 28239, Indonesia
Amun Amri Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Kampus Binawidya Panam, Riau 28239, Indonesia
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Abstract
Few-Layer Wrinkled Graphene (FLwG) Obtained from Coconut-Shell-Based Charcoal using a High-Voltage Plasma Method

Few-layer wrinkled graphene (FLwG) has been synthesized from a coconut-shell-based charcoal using a high-voltage plasma method. Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterizations. Molecular dynamic simulation was also performed for further atomic/molecule movement analysis in the system. The plasma was supplied in the air gap between the electrodes. The graphite rod was used as the high voltage electrode and the aluminum plate was used as the co-electrode. The charcoal powder was arranged on the aluminum electrode surface in the air gap with a distance of ~3 cm to the graphite electrode. Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that an FLwG had been produced. TEM analysis confirmed the presence of FLwG with a wrinkled and folded structure with an average size of 48.03 nm. XRD revealed that the produced graphene did not undergo any oxidations. Molecular dynamic simulation predicted that the FLwG formation was mainly led by the combination of ionization and deionization of air molecules under high temperatures and plasma stressing.

Coconut-shell-based charcoal; Few layers wrinkled graphene; High voltage plasma; Resonance inverter

Introduction

Research on the manufacture of graphene with methods that are suitable for the large scale is currently widespread. Various methods have been used, such as exfoliating graphite using liquid shear exfoliation and sonication, and they are quite promising (Wall, 2011; Fatima et al., 2014; Arifutzzaman et al., 2019; Luong et al., 2020; Amri et al., 2021). However, the risk is significant due to the disposal of liquid waste, which is dangerous to the environment. A new approach to graphene synthesis on a large scale, without any disposal liquid, has been reported (Luong et al., 2020). Luong et al. (2020) found that the synthesis of graphene using impulse energy techniques from an electric charge in capacitor banks could reach temperatures higher than 3,000 K in the order of 100 ms. Furthermore, it was found that extreme temperatures affected the peeling of carbon materials to graphene under the release of impulse energy from capacitor banks (Cançado et al., 2008; Kaniyoor et al., 2010).

 The use of the electric currents in the process of graphene production, however, is still not optimal (Luong et al., 2020). With the flash joule heating (FJH) process, the produced graphene was of better quality and could be used as a composite building material (Luong et al., 2020). This process required an increased compression of the powdered charcoal to reduce the electrical resistance, and it was necessary to maintain the temperature in the experiment around ~ 3,100 K in the order of 10 ms. This process produced graphene with a higher 2D band of Raman spectra. If the FJH flash exposure time was in the range of 50 to 150 ms, the produced graphene had a Raman spectra with a lower 2D value (Botas et al., 2013). The use of arc discharge in the manufacture of graphene has also been reported (Poorali and Bagheri-Mohagheghi, 2017). They arranged two electrodes made of graphite with ZnO and TiO2 as catalysts and injected an AC power supply of 100-200 A into the system (Poorali and Bagheri-Mohagheghi, 2017).

In our previous work, we reported the use of a resonant inverters circuit for high-voltage ozone generators with a push full configuration (Fri et al., 2020). The ozone generator was arranged with a dielectric barrier discharge method. It was found that the life of electronic components was inadequate and that overcurrent protection was needed in the event of an increase in current due to the enlarging plasma. This circuit provided a voltage of up to 15 kV with a frequency of 25 kHz (Fri et al., 2020). The aim of this current work is to synthesize graphene from coconut-shell-based charcoal using a high-voltage plasma (arc discharge) method. The plasma was created by modifying a previous ozone generator circuit to produce a high voltage in the order of 8 kV and a frequency of 25 kHz. Its peak voltage was established to produce plasma that was different from the barrier discharge in the previous ozone generator. Through this method, few-layer wrinkled graphene (FLwG) was successfully produced. FLwG has high potential to be used in energy storage and supercapacitor applications with high surface areas, high conductivity, thermal stability, and mechanical and chemical robustness (Deng and Berry, 2016).

Conclusion

    This work applied high-voltage plasma generation used to transform charcoal into graphene. The high-voltage electrode was a graphite rod that emitted a large volume of plasma. This plasma also initiated the ionization and deionization processes in an air molecule. Raman spectrophotometry revealed the formation of FLwG. TEM analysis confirmed the presence of FLwG with a wrinkled and folded structure with an average size of 48.03 nm. XRD showed that the produced graphene did not undergo any oxidations during the process. Molecular dynamic simulation showed that the graphene formation was mainly led by the combination of ionization and deionization of air molecules under high temperatures and plasma stressing.

Acknowledgement

    We would like to thank Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (LPPM) Universitas Riau for providing funding through the Penelitian Inovasi dan Percepatan Hilirisasi research grant (contract number: 842/UN.19.5.1.3/PT.01.03/2020).

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