|Gabriel Andari Kristanto||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Aldi Jansen||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|William Koven||Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
Bantar Gebang; Indonesia; Landfill mining; Waste, Refuse-derived fuel
Indonesia is the fourth most populous country globally, and the population is concentrated in its capital, Jakarta. The city is home to around 10 million people and is a working hub for other big cities close to Jakarta. Jakarta's waste generation can reach approximately 8,000 tons per day, and more than 50% of this is organic waste (BPS, 2005; BPS, 2017). Despite the massive generation of waste and lack of source separation, the Jakarta waste management system relies heavily on landfills.
When solid waste is disposed of in landfills, aerobic decomposition initially occurs. With compaction and the application of a daily cover, the waste begins to undergo anaerobic decomposition. Due to the lack of oxygen, microorganisms use nitrate and sulfate as electron acceptors. In the acid (hydrolysis) phase, macromolecule hydrolysis, such as that of cellulose and protein, enhances organic acid production and decreases pH levels. Hydrogen gas is also generated as the degradation of butyric and propionic acids proceeds. In the methanogenic phase, the methanogenic microorganism consumes organic acid and hydrogen gas to generate methane (Themelis and Uloa, 2007; Townsend et al., 2015).
For HFWC, the rapid degradation stage of MSW occurs in the first three years after the waste is deposited in landfills: about 80% of the solid waste degrades, 60% of the landfill gas (LFG) is generated, and 80% of the compression takes place. Subsequently, a slow degradation stage will occur for the next 20 to 30 years, with around 90% of the solid mass degrading, 80% of the LFG being generated, and 90% of waste stabilization being completed. Finally, the process concludes with post-stabilization, where the solid waste is completely degraded, while LFG generation and waste settlement are negligible (Chen et al., 2020).
Several studies have been conducted on Jakarta's solid waste potential to be used as renewable energy, and landfill mining could be the best solution for waste management problems in Jakarta (Adiandri and Kristanto, 2019; Kristanto and Rachmansyah, 2020). Landfill mining describes the process of excavating previously landfilled waste. The benefits of landfill mining include removing the source of groundwater pollution and valorizing landfill material as RDF (refuse-derived fuel), compost, or daily landfill cover (Prechthai et al., 2008; Jain et al., 2013; Townsend et al., 2015). As the material is reused, the area will be available for new fresh waste and, therefore, the landfill’s life will be extended. In addition, the cost of landfill post-closure could be avoided.
Many landfill reclamation projects have been conducted in the United States (US), such as those in Naples, Florida; Edinburg, New York; Frey Farm, Pennsylvania; Wyandot County, Ohio; Shawano County, Wisconsin; Clovis, California; Pheonix Rio Salado, Arizona; the central disposal system in Iowa; and many others (Townsend et al., 2015). Although landfill reclamation is an old concept in the US, it is very new in Indonesia. This study represents the first study on landfill mining published in Indonesia; hence, it can serve as an example for future research and a model for similar research on landfill mining in Indonesia.
From the point of view of regulations, the Ministry of Public Work in the Republic of Indonesia (MoPW) sets the criteria for landfill mining, and at least one of the criteria must be met before landfill mining can be conducted. Among the criteria are that: (1) the landfill has an impact on the environment; (2) the government cannot find other appropriate areas for landfills; and (3) the landfill handles non-hazardous waste (Indonesia Ministry of Public Works, 2013). The Bantar Gebang landfill certainly met some criteria, as indicated by its groundwater pollution, and the Jakarta Government has not found other areas for landfills yet (Indiyati et al., 2019). Furthermore, the regulation mentions that the soil-like material from landfill mining can be utilized in daily landfill cover, biofilters for leachate treatment, and compost for non-edible crops. At the same time, non-organic material can be used for energy recovery. The remaining unused material can be sent back to the landfill (Indonesia Ministry of Public Works, 2013).
This study aims to identify the potential for the landfilled waste in two inactive zones of the Bantar Gebang landfill to be utilized as RDF, compost, soil amendment, or daily landfill cover in concordance with the needs of Jakarta and regulations set by the Indonesia Ministry of Public Works. This study will compare the testing parameters of excavated landfill material with the Indonesian national standard (SNI) and the international standard (European Commission-Directorate General Environment, 2003) for safe and suitable material utilization. Moreover, some previous studies will be highlighted for comparison and point out the research that could be further conducted to support landfill mining studies and projects in Indonesia.
Landfill mining could be a solution to the problems that are currently faced by the Bantar Gebang landfill, such as the lack of landfill area in the vicinity of Jakarta and the groundwater pollution in the region. Moreover, landfill mining creates some added value by recovering excavated landfill materials, such as compost, daily landfill cover, and RDF.
The landfill material mined was dominated by soil-like material (33.15–35.54%) and plastic (26.214–30.12%). The soil-like material was stable but did not meet the basic standard for compost in Indonesia. A solution to this problem is to mix the soil-like material with other materials with a high potential for compost, such as organic waste from fresh MSW. The compost produced will only be suitable for non-edible crops.
The landfill material mined was also not
suitable for RDF utilization since it has a low calorific value (maximum 15.14
MJ/kg), high water content (48–50%), high ash content (24–27%), and a potential
for high HCl emission. It is
recommended that the materials
suitable for RDF
(such as plastic, wood, textile, and paper) should be
separated and dried up since these materials have high
water content (50–65%). Bulking agents or green waste can be added to reduce
the ash content and chlorine content. It is suggested that soil-like
used for soil amendment instead of compost,
while plastic wastes and other combustible materials should be
separated and dried to fulfill the RDF standard.
This research was supported by Universitas Indonesia Grant No. 1953/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019. The authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which significantly improved the final version of this paper.
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