• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 11, No 7 (2020)

Using Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction to Produce a Bioinsecticide from Cigarette Butt Waste and Green Solvent to Control Armyworm Infestation

Using Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction to Produce a Bioinsecticide from Cigarette Butt Waste and Green Solvent to Control Armyworm Infestation

Title: Using Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction to Produce a Bioinsecticide from Cigarette Butt Waste and Green Solvent to Control Armyworm Infestation
Faradilla Andiani Pratiwi, Tania Surya Utami, Rita Arbianti

Corresponding email:

Cite this article as:
Pratiwi, F.A., Utami, T.S., Arbianti, R. 2020., Using Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction to Produce a Bioinsecticide from Cigarette Butt Waste and Green Solvent to Control Armyworm Infestation. International Journal of Technology. Volume 11(7), pp. 1329-1336

Faradilla Andiani Pratiwi Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Tania Surya Utami Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Rita Arbianti Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Using Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction to Produce a Bioinsecticide from Cigarette Butt Waste and Green Solvent to Control Armyworm Infestation

Indonesia has one of the highest rates of cigarette consumption in the world, and it has been estimated that up to 75% of cigarette butts end up in nature, where they damage the environment. Since 2019, a new species of armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda or the fall armyworm) has been attacking maize plants in Indonesia. Therefore, it is proposed to use cigarette butts in the production of a bioinsecticide to control this armyworm. Tobacco, the main ingredient in cigarettes, contains various compounds that can be used as insecticides. These compounds can be extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method and a variety of solvents, namely, aquadest, 96% ethanol, and NADES as green solvent. The highest extract yield was 27.2±2.0% and the highest mortality rate for the fall armyworm occurred with 96% ethanol extract. The 16-Hentriacontanone compound with the highest peak area of 22.67% was obtained using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument. All compounds obtained from the GC/MS instrument were simulated with molecular docking to the acetylcholinesterase receptor. The highest docking score was -10.3 kcal/mol for 2,3-Dimethyl-5,6-diphenyl-1,7-dihydrodipyrrolo pyridine and 16-Hentriacontanone, which had a 100% similarity of interactions with the control ligand.

Bioinsecticides; Cigarette butt waste; Green solvent; Spodoptera frugiperda; Ultrasonic assisted extraction


It has been estimated that up to 75% of cigarette butts end up in nature (Cigarette Litter Organization, 2001). One way to reduce the waste from cigarette butts is to convert them into bioinsecticides. The main ingredient of cigarettes, tobacco leaves, contain various compounds that have the potential to be used as insecticides. These compounds include alkaloids, flavonoids, fatty acids, and essential oils (Khalalia, 2016; Kirkova et al, 2016). The advantages of biopesticides are that they are easily degraded, have no long-term residue, are fast acting, and have low mammalian toxicity and low phytotoxicity (Haryuni et al., 2019).

The targeted pest for this bioinsecticide from cigarette butts is the fall armyworm. The loss of harvest from an attack by the Spodoptera litura armyworm can reach 80% if the species is not controlled (Marwoto and Suharsono, 2008). Larvae damage crops by biting, chewing,  and  then  eating  the lower surface of the leaves. The leaves become transparent white, and after the severe damage only the midrib and veins of the leaves remain (Wijanarko et al., 2017). Recently in Indonesia there has emerged a new species of armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, which infests the maize plants (Ismail, 2019).

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) is a fast method for extracting organic compounds (Sholihah et al., 2017). The increased yield from UAE comes from cavitation, which facilitates the disruption of the cell wall by the ultrasound waves (Dianursanti et al., 2020). The solvent used with the extracted tobacco compounds was a green solvent, namely NADES, 96% ethanol and aquadest.

The extracts from the cigarette butts were identified using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument. Then, those compounds were simulated with molecular docking using the compounds that are abundant in cigarette butt bioinsecticide.

There has not been much research on the production of bioinsecticides using tobacco from cigarette butts. However, previous studies have proven the effectiveness of tobacco extract as an anti-pest bioinsecticide. One study proved that extract from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L., var. Virginia was effective in eradicating imago Gryllus bimaculatus and larvae of Galleria mellonella with LC50 values of 38.5 mg/mL and 36.6 mg/mL, respectively (Andjani et al., 2019). However, previous studies on waste from cigarette butts have not varied in the extraction method and type of solvent used to extract the desired compounds in cigarette butts.

This study was conducted to study the effect of solvent types on the yield amount of the crude extract of cigarette butts, to assess the effect of solvent types on the mortality rate of armyworms, to identify the content of compounds contained in the crude extract of cigarette butts by GC/MS analysis, and to identify the docking results of major compounds according to the results of GC/MS analysis with the pest receptor target.


    The results of the present study show that different solvents vary the yield of the cigarette butt extract. Moreover, the mortality rates of the armyworms showed that the compounds in the cigarette butts were effective at killing the armyworms. Ethanol 96% solvent was the most effective in dissolving the cigarette butt bioinsecticides because it produced the highest extract yield with an average of 27.2±2.0%. Cigarette butt bioinsecticide with 96% ethanol solvent was the most effective because it had the highest mortality rate for the fall armyworm with 60% mortality by the fourth day. The by GC/MS instrument identified several compounds in cigarette butt bioinsecticide. Moreover, the bonding of important residues of acetylcholinesterase receptors by the cigarette butt bioinsecticide compounds indicates the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that can kill the fall armyworms. For further studies, the following activities are recommended: look for an effective method for drying NADES solvent to obtain crude extract then calculating the yield, use another type of mixture to make NADES solvent, vary the conditions of the extraction operation, vary the concentrations of bioinsecticide to determine the most effective dose for killing armyworms, and analyze the extract with 96% ethanol and NADES solvents using GC/MS.


       Authors are grateful for the financial support from Publikasi Terindeks Internasional (PUTI) Prosiding 2020 Nomor: NKB-1151/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2020 and for the research facilities provided by Universitas Indonesia and Bogor Agricultural University. 

Supplementary Material
R1-CE-4474-20201201115233.JPG ---
R1-CE-4474-20201201115241.JPG ---

Abdelgaleil, S., Mohamed, M., Badawy, M., El-Arami, S., 2009. Fumigant and Contact Toxicities of Monoterpenes to Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Volume 35(5), pp. 518525

Andjani, H.N., Sentosa, Y., Yati, K., Jufri, M., Fauzantoro, A., Gozan, M., 2019. Determination of LC50 Value of Nicotiana tabacum L. Extract against Gryllus bimaculatus Imago and Galleria mellonella Larvae. In: AIP Conference Proceedings

Cigarette Litter Organization., 2001. The Awful Truth about Cigarette Litter. Available Online at www.cigarettelitter.org

Dhifi, W., Bellili, S., Jazi, S., Bahloul, N., Mnif, W., 2016. Essential Oils’ Chemical Characterization and Investigation of Some Biological Activities: A Critical Review. Medicines, Volume 3(4), pp. 116

Dianursanti, Siregar, A.R., Maeda, Y., Yoshino, T., Tanaka, T., 2020. The Effects of Solvents and Solid-to-Solvent Ratios on Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Chlorella vulgaris. International Journal of Technology, Volume 11(5), pp. 941950

Ding, K., Liu, L., Cheng, X., Wang, C., Wang, Z., 2010. Investigation on Representation Methods of Dissolubility Property of Total Alkaloid Extract from Peganum Harmala. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, Volume 35(17), pp. 22502253

Etxebarria, N., Zuloaga, O., Olivares, M., Bartolomé, L.J., Navarro, P., 2009. Retention-time Locked Methods in Gas Chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1216(10), pp. 16241629

Ferreira, O., Pinho, S.P., 2012. Solubility of Flavonoids in Pure Solvents. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research, Volume 51, pp. 65866590

Gibranadhi., 2019. Armyworm Bioinsecticide Production based on Cerbera Seed Extract using Ultrasonic Wave Extraction Method using NADES Solvent. Universitas Indonesia, Depok

Gomathy, S., Rathinam, K.S., 2017. Identification of Insecticidal Compounds in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopic Technique. International Journal of Entomology Research, Volume 2(6), pp. 108112

Harel, M., Kryger, G., Rosenberry, T., Mallender, W., Lewis, T., Fletcher, R., Guss, J.M., Silman, I., Sussman, J.L., 2008. Three-dimensional Structures of Drosophila melanogaster Acetylcholinesterase and of Its Complexes with Two Potent Inhibitors. Protein Science, Volume 9(6), pp. 10631072

Haryuni, H., Dewi, T.S., Suprapti, E., Rahman, S.F., Gozan, M., 2019. The Effect of Beauveria bassiana on the Effectiveness of Nicotiana tabacum Extract as Biopesticide against Hypothenemus Hampei to Robusta Coffee. International Journal of Technology, Volume 10(1), pp. 159166

Hase, G.J., Deshmukh, K.K., Pokharkar, R.D., Gaje, T.R., Phatanagre, N.D., 2017. Phytochemical Studies on Nerium oleander L. using GC-MS. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, Volume 9(6), pp. 885891

Ismail, E., 2019. Armyworm Pests Are Threat to Maize Farmers. Available Online at https://republika.co.id/berita/pw6dpk453/hama-ulat-grayak-jadi-ancaman-petani-jagung, Accessed December 29, 2019

Jain, A.N., Nicholls, A., 2008. Recommendations for Evaluation of Computational Methods. Journal of Computer Aided Molecular Design, Volume 22(3-4), pp. 133139

Khalalia, R., 2016. Uji Daya Bunuh Granul Ekstrak Limbah Tembakau (Nicotianae Tabacum L ) terhadap Larva Aedes Aegypti (Granul Killing Power Test of Tobacco Waste Extract (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) against Aedes Aegypti Larvaes). Unnes Journal of Public Health, Volume 5(4), pp. 366374

Kirkova, S., Srbinoska, M., Ivanova, S., Georgieva, A., 2016. Determination of Fatty Acid Composition of Seed of Oriental Tobacco. Original Scientific Paper, Volume 66(1-6), pp. 5358

Marwoto, S., Suharsono., 2008. Strategi dan Komponen Teknologi Pengendalian Ulat Grayak (Spodoptera Litura Fabricius) pada Tanaman Kedelai (Strategies and Technological Components of Armyworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius) in Soybeans). Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, Volume 27(4), pp. 131136

Mohamad, S.F., Mohamad, S., Aziz, A.A., 2013. The Susceptibility of Aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover to Lauric Acid Based Natural Pesticide. Procedia Engineering, Volume 53, pp. 2028

Nonci, N., Kalqutny, S.H., Mirsam, H., Muis, A., Azrai, M., Aqil, M., 2019. Introduction of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) The New Pest in Indonesia’s Maize Plants. Maros: Kementrian Pertanian

Rustan, A.C., Drevon, C.A., 2005. Fatty Acids: Structures and Properties. John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

Sakadzo, N., Makaza, K., Chikata, L., 2020. Biopesticidal Properties of Aqueous Crude Extracts of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) against Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera Frugiperda J.E Smith) on Maize Foliage (Zea Mays L.) Diets. Agricultural Science, Volume 2(1), pp. 4755

Sholihah, M., Ahmad, U., Budiastra, I.W., 2017. Application of Ultrasonic Waves to Increase Extraction Yield and Antioxy and Mangosteen Skin Effectiveness. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian, Volume 5(2), pp. 161168

Silva, E., Rogez, H., Larondelle, Y., 2007. Optimization of Extraction of Phenolics from Inga edulis Leaves using Response Surface Methodology. Separation and Purification Technology, Volume 55(3), pp. 381387

Tomizawa, M., Casida, J.E., 2005. Neonicotinoid Insecticide Toxicology: Mechanisms of Selective Action. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 45, pp. 247268.

Wijanarko, A., Nur, D.F., Sahlan, M., Afnan, N.T., Utami, T.S., Hermansyah, H., 2017. Production of a Biopesticide based on a Cysteine Protease Enzyme from Latex and Papaya (Carica Papaya) for Spodoptera litura in Red Chili Peppers (Capsicum annum). International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(8), pp. 14551461

Zhang, Q.-W., Lin, L.-G., Ye, W.-C., 2018. Techniques for Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products: A Comprehensive Review. Chinese Medicine, Volume 13, pp. 1-26