|Faradilla Andiani Pratiwi||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Tania Surya Utami||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Rita Arbianti||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
Indonesia has one of the highest rates of cigarette consumption in the world, and it has been estimated that up to 75% of cigarette butts end up in nature, where they damage the environment. Since 2019, a new species of armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda or the fall armyworm) has been attacking maize plants in Indonesia. Therefore, it is proposed to use cigarette butts in the production of a bioinsecticide to control this armyworm. Tobacco, the main ingredient in cigarettes, contains various compounds that can be used as insecticides. These compounds can be extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method and a variety of solvents, namely, aquadest, 96% ethanol, and NADES as green solvent. The highest extract yield was 27.2±2.0% and the highest mortality rate for the fall armyworm occurred with 96% ethanol extract. The 16-Hentriacontanone compound with the highest peak area of 22.67% was obtained using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument. All compounds obtained from the GC/MS instrument were simulated with molecular docking to the acetylcholinesterase receptor. The highest docking score was -10.3 kcal/mol for 2,3-Dimethyl-5,6-diphenyl-1,7-dihydrodipyrrolo pyridine and 16-Hentriacontanone, which had a 100% similarity of interactions with the control ligand.
Bioinsecticides; Cigarette butt waste; Green solvent; Spodoptera frugiperda; Ultrasonic assisted extraction
It has been estimated that up to 75% of cigarette butts end up in nature (Cigarette Litter Organization, 2001). One way to reduce the waste from cigarette butts is to convert them into bioinsecticides. The main ingredient of cigarettes, tobacco leaves, contain various compounds that have the potential to be used as insecticides. These compounds include alkaloids, flavonoids, fatty acids, and essential oils (Khalalia, 2016; Kirkova et al, 2016). The advantages of biopesticides are that they are easily degraded, have no long-term residue, are fast acting, and have low mammalian toxicity and low phytotoxicity (Haryuni et al., 2019).
The targeted pest for this bioinsecticide from cigarette butts is the fall armyworm. The loss of harvest from an attack by the Spodoptera litura armyworm can reach 80% if the species is not controlled (Marwoto and Suharsono, 2008). Larvae damage crops by biting, chewing, and then eating the lower surface of the leaves. The leaves become transparent white, and after the severe damage only the midrib and veins of the leaves remain (Wijanarko et al., 2017). Recently in Indonesia there has emerged a new species of armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, which infests the maize plants (Ismail, 2019).
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) is a fast method for extracting organic compounds (Sholihah et al., 2017). The increased yield from UAE comes from cavitation, which facilitates the disruption of the cell wall by the ultrasound waves (Dianursanti et al., 2020). The solvent used with the extracted tobacco compounds was a green solvent, namely NADES, 96% ethanol and aquadest.
The extracts from the cigarette butts were identified using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument. Then, those compounds were simulated with molecular docking using the compounds that are abundant in cigarette butt bioinsecticide.
There has not been much research on the production of bioinsecticides using tobacco from cigarette butts. However, previous studies have proven the effectiveness of tobacco extract as an anti-pest bioinsecticide. One study proved that extract from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L., var. Virginia was effective in eradicating imago Gryllus bimaculatus and larvae of Galleria mellonella with LC50 values of 38.5 mg/mL and 36.6 mg/mL, respectively (Andjani et al., 2019). However, previous studies on waste from cigarette butts have not varied in the extraction method and type of solvent used to extract the desired compounds in cigarette butts.
This study was conducted to study the effect of solvent types on the yield amount of the crude extract of cigarette butts, to assess the effect of solvent types on the mortality rate of armyworms, to identify the content of compounds contained in the crude extract of cigarette butts by GC/MS analysis, and to identify the docking results of major compounds according to the results of GC/MS analysis with the pest receptor target.
The results of the present study show that different solvents vary the yield of the cigarette butt extract. Moreover, the mortality rates of the armyworms showed that the compounds in the cigarette butts were effective at killing the armyworms. Ethanol 96% solvent was the most effective in dissolving the cigarette butt bioinsecticides because it produced the highest extract yield with an average of 27.2±2.0%. Cigarette butt bioinsecticide with 96% ethanol solvent was the most effective because it had the highest mortality rate for the fall armyworm with 60% mortality by the fourth day. The by GC/MS instrument identified several compounds in cigarette butt bioinsecticide. Moreover, the bonding of important residues of acetylcholinesterase receptors by the cigarette butt bioinsecticide compounds indicates the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that can kill the fall armyworms. For further studies, the following activities are recommended: look for an effective method for drying NADES solvent to obtain crude extract then calculating the yield, use another type of mixture to make NADES solvent, vary the conditions of the extraction operation, vary the concentrations of bioinsecticide to determine the most effective dose for killing armyworms, and analyze the extract with 96% ethanol and NADES solvents using GC/MS.
are grateful for the financial support from Publikasi Terindeks Internasional
(PUTI) Prosiding 2020 Nomor: NKB-1151/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2020 and for the
research facilities provided by Universitas Indonesia and Bogor Agricultural
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