|Hendri DS Budiono||Research Center for Advanced Vehicles (RCAVE), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Danardono A Sumarsono||Research Center for Advanced Vehicles (RCAVE), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Mohammad Adhitya||Research Center for Advanced Vehicles (RCAVE), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Ario Sunar Baskoro|
|Agung Shamsuddin Saragih|
|Sonki Prasetya||1. Research Center for Advanced Vehicles (RCAVE), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia 2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Jak|
|Fuad Zainuri||1. 1. Research Center for Advanced Vehicles (RCAVE), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia 2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri|
Electric actuator; Electric vehicles; Fuzzy; Magnetic
A braking system is one of the most important features in a vehicle. Braking system can be categorized into hydraulic, electric, and mechanical brakes according to (Khurmi and Gupta, 2005). Trucks and buses are considered heavy vehicles that commonly use mechanical brakes in their drum brake design system (Bu and Tan, 2007). The mechanical brake utilizes an air force via a pneumatic actuator to produce linear movement. This action expands the brake shoe to create friction with the wheel drum in order to decelerate the vehicle.
Heavy vehicles provide air generated by a compressor stored in a tank. This compressor is powered by the rotating part of the internal combustion engine (ICE) (Holmberg et al., 2014). Currently, electric vehicles (EVs) have gained popularity due to their potential advantages such as more friendly to the environment and low total cost of ownership compared to conventional ICE vehicles (Sheth and Sarkar, 2019). Instead of ICE, EVs rely heavily on electric motors as their prime mover ( Riba et al., 2016; Eldho Aliasand and Josh, 2020).
However, electric buses that use conventional pneumatic actuators powered by compressors experience increased inefficiency and loss due to the applied conversion stages, namely the compressor, air tank, cylinders, hoses, etc. for braking events (Bendix, 2009). Additionally, the supporting components naturally contribute additional weight to a vehicle. Government regulation PP No 55/2012 states that buses can be categorized into several classes, such as small, medium, big, maxi, tandem, and double-decker, depending on their size and weight (GoI, 2012). Moreover, the rule restricts the allowed weight. For instance, a big bus class (12m or longer) can only have a maximum weight of 16 tons. Therefore, an alternative actuator uses electric power to produce linear movement with the advantage of reduction stages; the weight for braking is also investigated.
Numerous research articles have focused on EV areas, such as the research pertaining to air conditioners using brushless direct current (DC) compressors (Nasruddin and Sinambela, 2015). Particularly, for investigations regarding EV braking, a combinational regenerative and mechanical braking system is studied by (Yusivar et al., 2015). However, the study emphasized the control of combining friction and harnessing energy from the movement of the vehicle. Other types of so-called electric powered braking systems use the principle of electromagnetic force, which can be applied, for instance, in cranes and wheel chairs. Moreover, the electric braking system is also applied for a high-speed train in Germany (Hofmann et al., 2000; Yasa et al., 2016). This study utilizes a magnetic solenoid principle for the electric braking actuator. However, with on/off activation controls, activation results in the sudden movement of the vehicle. This presents a problem, as conventional pneumatic actuator braking systems have different responses to the solenoid system. It follows the rule of pressurized air, as shown in the research conducted by (Yang et al., 2017), and also generates transmission loses (Wang et al., 2017). In order to control the magnetic field to differentiate the breaking intensity, a controller is prepared to generate the signal to the magnetic solenoid. The research objective is to obtain a proper control for smooth braking action by using the magnetic actuator with the integration of an artificially intelligent (AI) method. Furthermore, AI control would improve the performance of the response time of the actuator.
A model of an electric braking actuator is developed to have the analogous response to the pneumatic braking actuator. Integrating AI method, namely the fuzzy logic control, was applied to generate braking signals to provide smoother curves (similar to the conventional pneumatic actuator response). Thus, abrupt deceleration is prevented using a mixed shape for function. Moreover, the fuzzy controller can improve the time response result and minimize the 30% loss due to the piping-hose in the pneumatic system. In order to implement the results of the braking intensity, the PWM technique manipulates the outcome of the fuzzy controller and uses a sampling period of 1 ms to process the signal, which is dedicated to digitally controlling the magnetic field and pushing the rod for braking action.
The work of this research was supported by Penelitian Terapan Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PTUPT NKB-2949/UN2.RST/HKKP.05.00/2020) of Ristekdikti and Publikasi Unggulan Terindeks Internasional (PUTI NKB-645/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2020) Research Grants. Many thanks for all parties at the Universitas Indonesia and Politeknik Negeri Jakarta, which provided facilities and opportunities to this study.
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