Published at : 01 Apr 2022
Volume : IJtech Vol 13, No 2 (2022)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v13i2.4449
|Lailatul Qadariyah||Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Teknik Kimia, Keputih, Sukolilo District, Surabaya, 60111, East Java, I|
|Sahiba Sahila||Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Teknik Kimia, Keputih, Sukolilo District, Surabaya, 60111, East Java, I|
|Christiyani Sirait||Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Teknik Kimia, Keputih, Sukolilo District, Surabaya, 60111, East Java, I|
|Christopher P.E. Purba||Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Teknik Kimia, Keputih, Sukolilo District, Surabaya, 60111, East Java, I|
|Donny Satria Bhuana||Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Teknik Kimia, Keputih, Sukolilo District, Surabaya, 60111, East Java, I|
|Mahfud Mahfud||Chemical Engineering Department, Industrial Technology and Systems Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Teknik Kimia, Keputih, Sukolilo District, Surabaya, 60111, East Java, I|
As a surfactant, methyl ester sulfonate (MES) can be produced from virgin coconut oil (VCO) raw materials through the following stages: transesterification, sulfonation, and purification. The transesterification process was carried out to produce methyl esters by reacting VCO with methanol in a mole ratio of 1:41 using a 1% KOH catalyst at a microwave power of 300 W for 60 min. The effects of microwave power and mole ratios between methyl esters and sodium bisulfite in the sulfonation process were investigated. The sulfonation process was carried out using a 1% aluminum oxide catalyst. The purification process was carried out by reacting MES with 35% v/v methanol at 150 W of microwave power for 10 min. The resulting MES was analyzed using gas chromatography and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for surfactant production included a microwave power of 450 W and reactant mole ratio of 1:1, which resulted in a surface tension of 37.9 dyne/cm, pH of 4.21, density of 0.87 g/mL, and viscosity of 3.33 cSt. Based on the FT-IR analysis, the vibrational strain of the sulfonate group was detected at a peak value of 1014.42 for symmetrical S-O and 722.24 cm-1 for asymmetrical S-O.
Methyl ester sulfonate; Microwave; Sulfonation; Transesterification; Virgin Coconut Oil
In this study, an MES surfactant was successfully developed from VCO using the Al2O3 catalyst through the sulfonation process using microwave radiation, which could reduce the sulfonation time. The MES production was affected by the reactant mole ratio and microwave power, where the optimum conditions included a reactant mole ratio of 1:1 and 450 W of microwave power with a viscosity of 3.33 cSt, density of 0.87 gr/cm, surface tension of 37.9 dyne/cm, and pH of 4.21. In addition, the results of the FT-IR analysis suggested that a sulfonate group was present in the sample at the absorption peak of ? = 1020–690 cm-1. Moreover, in the last three years, 3050 papers have discussed this surfactant. This is due to the demerits of synthetic surfactants and the tendency of people to prioritize natural ingredients. Therefore, multidisciplinary research related to MES development is required to review the cost aspect so that a simpler method with a lower cost can be developed. In addition, it is necessary to further review the critical micelle concentration and hydrophilic–lipophilic balance to measure the strength balance of the hydrophilic and lipophilic groups of the surfactants formed. As a renewable and environmentally friendly bio-based anionic surfactant, substantial ongoing efforts are expected in the next few years to build green products and reduce the use of synthetic surfactants.
This study has been thoroughly supported by the research funds from Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember under the project scheme of the Publication Writing and IPR Incentive Program (PPHKI) No. T/2029/IT2/HK.00.01/2021. The authors thank all individuals associated with this research work, especially the Chemical Process Laboratory Crew of the Chemical Engineering Department of Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.
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