• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 3 (2021)

Post-harvest and Extraction Conditions for the Optimum Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Stenochlaena palustris

Post-harvest and Extraction Conditions for the Optimum Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Stenochlaena palustris

Title: Post-harvest and Extraction Conditions for the Optimum Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Stenochlaena palustris
Maria Dewi P. Tirtaningtyas Gunawan-Puteri, Eisuke Kato, Della Rahmawati, Stevan Teji, Jevon Ardy Santoso, Febbyandi Isnanda Pandiangan, Yanetri Asi Nion

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Cite this article as:
Gunawan-Puteri, M.D.P.T., Kato, E., Rahmawati, D., Teji, S., Santoso, J.A., Pandiangan, F.I., Nion, Y.A., 2021. Post-harvest and Extraction Conditions for the Optimum Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Stenochlaena palustris. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(3), pp. 649-660

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Maria Dewi P. Tirtaningtyas Gunawan-Puteri Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Swiss German University, Tangerang 15143, Indonesia
Eisuke Kato Laboratory of Food Science, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0808, Japan
Della Rahmawati Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Swiss German University, Tangerang 15143, Indonesia
Stevan Teji Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Swiss German University, Tangerang 15143, Indonesia
Jevon Ardy Santoso Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Swiss German University, Tangerang 15143, Indonesia
Febbyandi Isnanda Pandiangan Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Swiss German University, Tangerang 15143, Indonesia
Yanetri Asi Nion Study Program of Agrotechnology, Department of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University, Palangka Raya 74874, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Post-harvest and Extraction Conditions for the Optimum Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Stenochlaena palustris

Stenochlaena palustris has been studied for its anti-diabetic potency related to its alpha-glucosidase inhibitory (AGI) activity. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of post-harvest and extraction conditions on the AGI activity of S. palustris and isolate the AGI bioactive principal component. AGI activity was calculated based on the inhibition of S. palustris samples against in vitro rat intestinal maltase and sucrase hydrolytic activities in enzymatic reactions. The selected extracts were subjected to activity-guided fractionation using liquid-liquid sequential separation, followed by silica N60 column chromatography. This study showed that post-harvest treatment significantly protected the AGI activity of S. palustris, while its optimum extract condition was observed with methanol and a smaller particle size (< 250 µm) at a sample to solvent ratio of 1:20 (w/v) for 24 h. Further fractionation, followed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) evaluation of the S. palustris extracts from optimum post-harvest and extraction conditions, also resulted in the identification of kaempferol 3-O-?-glucopyranoside (astragalin) as the responsible bioactive AGI compound. This study’s findings are expected to contribute to further study and utilization of S. palustris as an anti-diabetic agent based on its AGI activity.

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities; Diabetic; Kaempferol 3-O-?-glucopyranoside; Kelakai; Stenochlaena palustris

Introduction

Kelakai (Stenochlaena palustris; Figure 1) is an endemic fern used as food and traditional medicine by the Dayak ethnic society in central Kalimantan, Indonesia. S. palustris is also found and used for medicinal treatments in other countries (Ponnusamy et al., 2013; Neamsuvan et al., 2015). Extracts of this plant’s mature (Chai et al., 2015) and young fronds (Leng, 2016) possess potent, high natural alpha-glucosidase inhibitory (AGI) activity associated with hyperglycemia treatment.

Figure 1 Left to right: (a) field; (b) young leaves; and (c) mature leaves of Stenochlaena palustris

 

The activities of S. palustris against AGI enzymes, along with its long consumption history, strongly encourage the plant’s utilization as a functional food ingredient for diabetes management, especially given the rising awareness of self-monitoring and self-

controlling blood sugar levels (Dewi et al., 2017). Common challenges in the development and production of functional food from natural products are maintaining AGI activity consistency and standardization during harvesting and processing (Widiputri et al., 2020). Extraction conditions, such as type of solvents and solvent to solid ratio, have been known to affect extraction efficiency (Dianursanti et al., 2020; Widiputri et al., 2020). To support the utilization of S. palustris as a functional ingredient for diabetes management, it is important to select post-harvest and extraction treatments for optimum and consistent AGI activity.

Various phenolic compound derivatives, such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), and hydroxycinnamic acids (Chai et al., 2012; Chai et al., 2015; Chear et al., 2016 Rahmawati et al., 2017), have been identified in the extracts of S. palustris. However, the compounds responsible for this plant species’ AGI activity have not yet been confirmed. Identifying the major bioactive compounds responsible for AGI activity is also important in providing guidelines that the plant’s principal activity compounds remain during harvesting and processing.

Previous studies have revealed that the water fraction of methanol extract in the mature (Chai et al., 2015) and young fronds (Leng, 2016) of S. palustris possess potent, high natural AGI activity commonly associated with hyperglycemia treatment. The first objective of this study is thus to select S. palustris post-harvest and extraction treatments for optimum and consistent AGI activity. Furthermore, to provide guidelines for the principal activity compounds, this study aims to identify the major bioactive compounds responsible for this plant’s AGI activity using activity-guided fractionation and instrumental analysis of the isolated compounds.

Conclusion

    This study revealed several important findings on the standardization and optimization of S. palustris extraction, specifically regarding post-harvest treatment and extraction conditions. Attempts to preserve moisture and delay the wilting of fresh S. palustris leaves was shown to also protect their AGI activity. The smaller particle size of dried S. palustris powder was shown to better facilitate extraction of the principal AGI component at a 1:20 (w/v) extraction ratio. This study also identified astragalin as the active compound responsible for the AGI activity in S. palustris. This study’s findings are expected to contribute to the further study and utilization of S. palustris as a functional ingredient for diabetes management based on its AGI activity.

Acknowledgement

    This research project was supported by a grant from the Directorate General of Resources for Science, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia (contract number 0789/K4/KM/2018) and the Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO) Student Exchange Support Program (Scholarship for Short-Term Study in Japan) for the short-stay program at the School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University. The authors also express their gratitude to the students of the Agricultural Faculty at Palangkaraya University for their tremendous help in the sample collection, Dr. Hery Sutanto for his help with the chemical structure elucidation of the isolated compound, and Ms. Florence Ignatia, S.T., B. Eng for her help with the manuscript’s proofreading.

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