|Andi Kurniawan||- Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Malang, 65145, Indonesia - Coastal and Marine Research Centre (PSPK-UB), University of Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Mal|
|Tatsuya Yamamoto||Graduate School of Life Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, 525-8577, Japan|
|Arning Wilujeng Ekawati||Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Malang, 65145, Indonesia|
|Lutfi Ni'matus Salamah||Coastal and Marine Research Centre (PSPK-UB), University of Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Malang, 65145, Indonesia|
|Abd. Aziz Amin||Microbase Research Group, Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Program, University of Brawijaya, Jalan MT. Haryono 169, Malang, 65145, Indonesia|
|Adi Tiya Yanuar||Microbase Research Group, Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Program, University of Brawijaya, Jalan MT. Haryono 169, Malang, 65145, Indonesia|
This study analyzed the characteristics of Cd(II)[MOU1] biosorption into the natural streamer biofilm matrices collected from the Brantas River in Indonesia to develop streamer biofilms as biosorbent pollutant ions. The biosorption features were studied by investigating the kinetics of adsorption and the adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) into the streamer biofilm. The adsorption sites of biofilms were investigated by analyzing the biofilms' electric charge characteristics and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra. The results of this study suggest that the adsorption of Cd(II) to the biofilm streamer is a physicochemical process where the electrically charged sites promoted by ionization functional groups in the biofilm polymers functioned as adsorption sites. The adsorption of Cd(II) into streamer biofilm is well suited to the Langmuir adsorption pattern. Cd(II) adsorption's maximum capacity to the biofilm is estimated to be approximately 14.29 mmol/g, while the equilibrium constant is approximately 0.06 L/mmol. This study demonstrates the biosorption of Cd(II) using biofilm streamers that formed naturally in rivers in Indonesia, a phenomenon that had rarely been reported. This study's results reveal that the natural streamer biofilm formed in Indonesia's Brantas River is a promising biosorbent for Cd(II) removal in water pollution treatments.
Adsorption; Aquatic ecosystem; Heavy metals; Microbial ecology; Water pollutant
Water pollution has become a leading environmental problem in developing countries, including Indonesia (Chojnacka, 2010). Pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem include heavy metals such as Cd(II). This heavy metal is largely used for industrial purposes (Suprapto et al., 2020), such as in the coating and electrical industries (Chojnacka, 2010), and has become a primary battery component. Cd(II) is a cancer hazard and can cause lung and kidney diseases (Fomina and Gadd, 2014; He et al., 2016; Nasir and Faizal, 2016; Yi et al., 2017; Locosselli et al., 2018). The quality standard for Cd(II) concentration in aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers in Indonesia, is a maximum of 0.01 mg/L. Excessive use of Cd(II) can pollute aquatic environments.
Numerous technologies have been proposed to reduce water pollution. These technologies should be sufficient, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly (Julien et al., 2014; Fomina and Gadd, 2014; Jobby et al., 2018). One alternative technology is using biological materials, or biomass, to immobilize contaminants (Jawad et al., 2018a; Kusrini et al., 2018). Biomass-based technologies have many advantages because they use inexpensive and renewable materials and can recover pollutants (Jawad et al., 2016; Desmiarti et al., 2019). Biosorption is a biomass-based technology that is widely proposed as an alternative pollution treatment. The choice of biosorbents strongly influences the success of biosorption. The evaluation of various types of biosorbents to develop biosorption-based water pollution treatments has become one of the latest research themes related to biosorption (Olufemi and Eniodunmo, 2018).
The alternative biosorbents that have attracted many experts' attention are microbes in aquatic ecosystems (Gadd, 2009; Jimoh & Cowan, 2017; Cheng et al., 2018). The primary habitat of microbes in aquatic ecosystems is a biofilm (Flemming and Wingener, 2010; Kurniawan and Yamamoto, 2019). Biofilm is defined as a microbial community matrix attached to the substrate (da Silva et al., 2020). Biofilms that grow in river ecosystems are called streamer biofilms. Streamer biofilm matrices can attract and retain various pollutant ions from the surrounding waters, including heavy metal ions such as Cd(II) (Gadd, 2009; Volesky, 2007).
understanding the characteristics of Cd(II) biosorption by streamer biofilms
can improve the development of water purification technology (D'Acunto
et al., 2018; Rittman, 2018), studies remain limited
about the biosorption of Cd(II) using biofilm streamers formed naturally in
rivers. Most of the studies use single-species biofilms or laboratory-grown
biofilms (Hiraki et al., 2009; Kurniawan et al., 2015; Gul et al., 2018).
The present study analyzed the biosorption of Cd(II) by the natural streamer biofilm matrices collected from the Brantas River in Malang City, Indonesia. This study suggested that the streamer biofilm matrices may adsorb Cd(II) through a physicochemical process. According to this study's results, the natural streamer biofilm matrices formed in the Brantas River may become a potential alternative biosorbent for Cd(II) removal from aquatic ecosystems.
The present study shows that biofilm streamers carry both positively and negatively charged sites. The streamer biofilm matrices can attract and adsorb heavy metal ions such as Cd(II) from the surrounding water. The streamer biofilms have been shown to quickly adsorb Cd(II) through a physicochemical reaction. The maximum biosorption capacity (Nmax) of the streamer biofilm matrix for Cd(II) is 14.29 mmol/g, and the adsorption equilibrium constant (b) is 0.06 L/mmol. According to this study's result, the streamer biofilm formed naturally in the Brantas River is a promising biosorbent in the removal of water pollutants. However, pollutants entering rivers include more than Cd(II). Hence, to develop river biofilms as biosorbent for river pollution, future studies will focus on the biosorption of other heavy metals by biofilm formed in the Brantas River.
This research is supported by the government of Indonesia’s Directorate for Research and Community Service, the Directorate General of Strengthening Research and Development, and the Ministry Education, Culture, Research and Technology under Contract Number: 439.1/UN10.C10/TU/2021. The authors would like to thank Dr. Yuki Tsuchiya from Nihon University for the interpretation of research data.
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