|Rony Teguh||Informatics Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Palangka Raya, Jln Yos Sudarso Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah 73112, Indonesia|
|Ariesta Lestari||Informatics Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Palangka Raya, Jln Yos Sudarso Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah 73112, Indonesia|
|Benone J Louhenapessy||Study Program of Environmental Science, University of Palangka Raya, Jln Yos Sudarso Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah 73112, Indonesia|
|Hiroshi Hayasaka||Hokkaido University, N14 W3, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0014, Japan|
|Rizal Endar Wibowo||Informatics Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Palangka Raya, Jln Yos Sudarso Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah 73112, Indonesia|
the ways to control tropical peat fires is to use a combination of the Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and smartphones for monitoring, reporting,
and verification of the location of the fires. The latest smartphones have many
sensors, such as a compass, accelerometer, GPS, and a camera, to collect forest
activity data from a specific target area. The collected data were then transferred
to a cloud server through global mobile communication. This paper discusses a
mobile and web application-based approach to collect and analyze user-generated
geographical information of human activity data. The paper aims is to promote
law enforcement agencies, local government, and fire patrol to consider the use
of this low-cost, easy-to-use technology in controlling and reducing the risk
of tropical peatland fires. Our mobile application has an easy-to-use mapping technology
that allows its users to locate addresses quickly and provides cartographic
maps augmented with digital information and high-resolution aerial imagery.
This study proposes online citizen reporting as a new approach for law
enforcement by aiding local government and fire patrols to conduct monitoring,
reporting, and verification to reduce the risk of peat forest fires.
Geotagged photo; GNSS; Investigation tool; Peatland fire; Smartphone
Tropical peatland fires caused by spontaneous combustion, human activity pose critical problems, especially in Indonesia. Tropical peatland fires can cause to significant health, economic, environmental damage and worsen climate damage (Hayasaka et al., 2014; Alisjahbana and Busch, 2017; Purnomo et al., 2017)?. In Sumatra and Kalimantan Island, many of fire events are detected by satellites. Because the initial detection of peatland fires is of importance for effective burnout, a detection and monitoring system for Indonesian forest fires has been developed (Siegert et al., 2004; Groot et al., 2007; Elvidge et al., 2015; Iizuka et al., 2018; Sandhyavitri et al., 2019)?. One of the ways to control tropical peat fires is the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and smartphones for effective monitoring and prevention. The latest smartphones have many features, such as a compass, accelerometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), and camera, to collect and measure forest activity data from a specific target area (Masiero et al., 2016; Keefe et al., 2019).
The collected data are then aggregated to the cloud server through
global mobile communication. This system can provide direct reports and
analyses of criminal activity patterns resulting in tropical peatland forest
fires through smartphone-based citizen reporting.
A lot of monitoring and surveillance systems for tropical peatland fires are currently based on satellites, drones, fire lookout towers, or wireless sensor networks (Teguh et al., 2012; Kadir et al., 2019; Salman et al., 2019). Although these methods are easy to use, they all present serious drawbacks that limit peat and forest fire monitoring effectiveness. Smartphones and GPS can create digital images with spatial information, which are commonly referred to as geotagged photos (Merry and Bettinger, 2019). The geographical positioning is created automatically by the GNSS satellite. The geotagging of photos is possible using digital cameras with a built-in smartphone model (Mamei et al., 2010; Orsi and Geneletti, 2013; Krylov et al., 2018). In this paper, we establish a combination of mobile applications and geotagged photos as a novel method to collect such as fire data, quickly and efficiently for investigating tropical peatland fires. Moreover, this methodology can be used for various environmental investigations.
Using the methodology discussed in this paper, users can employs smartphone-based mobile application to generate geographical information related to criminal activity resulting in forest fires. This paper aims to encourage law enforcement agencies, local governments, and fire patrols to consider this low-cost device and easy-to-use technology for monitoring tropical peatland fires. The GPS technology in smartphones automatically generates and stores the coordinates in an Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) every time a photograph is taken. The EXIF file data also contain information, such as the time/date an image was captured and the basic information about the camera model.
Google Maps is a popular mapping service application that offers a simple location look-up functionality and easily accessible online/offline mapping and cartography for citizen reporting. The cartographic maps provided by Google Maps is augmented with digital information and high resolution aerial imagery. This paper introduces online citizen reporting as a new approach for law enforcement to conduct environmental investigation of tropical peatland fires.
The monitoring peat and forest fire
techniques are currently based on satellites, watchtowers, or sensor networks.
Although helpful, both technologies present serious drawbacks, limiting their
detection capability. In this paper, we propose a method for monitoring,
reporting, and verifying tropical peat fires using smartphone technology. Our
method is novel, useful, and very quick to perform a timely response to the
occurrence of fires in peat and forest areas.
We developed a mobile and web application for monitoring and verification of citizen reporting of peat fire sightings. The geotagged photos and descriptions collected from smartphones were sent via a global communication system. Firefighters used the coordinates and crime scene photos as preliminary evidence in the investigation of peatland fire events. The Google Maps services in our mobile app can be used to track the fire location and find nearby water sources and roads. The app also provided measurement of the response time and duration to stop the fire. A record of crime data included the location of the fire event and the soil type (peat or mineral). The characteristic type of fire is still on the surface of the peat.
this study, smartphone users generated geographical information and a mobile-based
web application was subsequently used to collect and analyze activity crime activity
data. This is a low-cost device and easy-to-use technology to monitor and
control tropical peatland fire. The collected data has contributed to the
monitoring, reporting, and verification of peat fire preventive strategies.
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