|Hermawan Rahman Sholeh||Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Mia Rizkinia||Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Basari Basari||1. Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia 2. Research Center for Biomedical Engineering,|
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and the brain is one of the body’s cancer-prone organs. The early detection of brain tumors can reduce cancer risk, which is practically assisted and conducted using scanners such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, those modalities are high-cost and large-sized, and they have a side effect risk to health. Alternatively, microwave imaging offers a novel cancer scanning method for early detection with low cost, small size and low health risk. Consequently, this research designs and creates a framework with a novel microwave image reconstruction algorithm inside. The framework is a component of the controller and image reconstructor for a portable microwave-based brain tumor detector that is open source and multi-platform. For the novel algorithm, this research proposes a CS-based imaging algorithm by exploiting the data‘s sparse and low-rank properties. The experiment shows that the proposed algorithm can give better qualitative and quantitative reconstruction results compared to a full-sampling-based as well as CS-based algorithm.
Compressive sensing; Framework; Image reconstruction; Low-rank; Microwave imaging; Sparse
In Cancer is the second-leading cause of death globally. According to the WHO, the death rate due to cancer reached 9.6 million in 2018 (WHO, 2018). The brain is one of the organs susceptible to cancer. The early detection of brain tumors is essential to mitigate the risk of cancer. There are many examples of tumor detection using imaging technologies such as X-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) (Gao and Jiang, 2013). However, these modalities still have disadvantages such as radiation level, device complexity, operational costs and size (Chandra et al., 2015). Therefore, researchers develop a new modality by utilizing microwaves (Dilman et al., 2017; Shtoda et al., 2017).
imaging has used various algorithms to reconstruct the scan results, such as
time-domain inversion (Ali and Moghaddam, 2010), ultra-wideband magnitude combined tomography
(UPC), algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) (Elevani et
al., 2016, Elevani et al.,2017[HR1] ), simultaneous
algebraic reconstruction technique (Aprilliyani et al., 2017), filtered back projection (FBP) (Ramadhan et al., 2017; Ramdani
et al., 2018) and the algorithm based on compressive sensing (CS) (Basari and Ramdani, 2019). However, UPC, ART and FBP algorithms have
disadvantages because they require much data to get decent results. Meanwhile,
the compressive sensing approach reduces the amount of data needed for
reconstruction because it uses sampled data. The data also tend to be sparse in
a frequency domain, that is having many elements containing zero value among
the total data set (Donoho et al., 2016; Basari and
Ramdani, 2019). Previous research proposed CS with total variation
(TV) regularization solved by the alternating direct method of multipliers
(ADMM) (Razzak et al., 2019). The method
shows a smoother reconstructed image and lower mean square error (MSE) than
SART and sparse CS.
The research contribution lies in the proposed image reconstruction algorithm for the software aspect and the proposed framework for the portable hardware aspect. The proposed algorithm improves image reconstruction results by using the low-rank property of the data. It combines sparse and low-rank properties of the data based on the compressive sensing approach. The idea is that the microwave measurement data are not only sparse but also low rank. The low-rank property is represented by imposing a nuclear norm (the sum of a matrix's singular value). It has been utilized for facial recognition (Luo et al., 2014), feature extraction (Yang et al., 2017), hyperspectral unmixing (Giampouras et al., 2016), CT image reconstruction (Yang et al., 2017) and MRI reconstruction (Ulas et al., 2016) due to its robustness. The data are said to be low rank because data matrices tend to be highly correlated. In an implementation, the nuclear norm is imposed on the CS optimization problem to consider low ranking.
Researchers have developed simple, low-cost and portable medical devices (Hugeng and Kurniawan, 2016). This research introduces the design of a framework that is universal, open-source and multi-platform concerning the hardware aspect. The framework is for a controller and for packaging the developed image reconstruction algorithm. It can run on a card-sized computer, such as the Raspberry Pi, to be used as a portable brain tumor detector component. The framework can be operated as if a user operates a portable brain tumor detector.
The rest of this paper is organised as follows. Section 2 describes the details of the proposed method in this paper. Section 3 shows parameter settings, results and our respective analyses. Finally, Section 4 concludes this study.
This research has successfully designed and implemented a framework for controller and image reconstructor components of a universal, open-source, multi-platform, portable microwave-based brain tumor detector. The framework has been implemented in the Python language using Python libraries that support scientific computing. It can run on Raspberry Pi, a card-sized computer platform. Frameworks can be operated in the simulation mode as appropriate for the user and can function according to predetermined specifications.
Algorithm development shows that low rankness by nuclear norm can be applied as regularization in microwave image reconstruction under the compressive sensing (CS) approach. Compared to the CS method added with TV, which has given the best results compared to the SART and FBP methods, the proposed method can give the same results – and perhaps even better ones.
Qualitatively, the proposed SLR?CS algorithm shows the same image reconstruction in color and size to differentiate tumor and tissue. Quantitatively, this method can provide a better similarity and error value to the reference image, measured by SSIM and MSE parameters. The SLR?CS method provides a 45% similarity rate (SSIM) and an 18% pixel error rate (MSE), which is a 1% increase from previous studies (CS added with TV).
The authors acknowledge Universitas Indonesia’s support through the Q3 Research Grant 2020 and Q1Q2 Research Grant 2019 under contract number NKB?0309/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019.
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