• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 11, No 5 (2020)

Amperometric Detection of Dopamine based on a Graphene Oxide/PEDOT:PSS Composite Electrode

Amperometric Detection of Dopamine based on a Graphene Oxide/PEDOT:PSS Composite Electrode

Title: Amperometric Detection of Dopamine based on a Graphene Oxide/PEDOT:PSS Composite Electrode
Gilar Wisnu Hardi, Siti Fauziyah Rahman

Corresponding email:

Cite this article as:
Hardi, G.W., Rahman, S.F. 2020. Amperometric Detection of Dopamine based on a Graphene Oxide/PEDOT:PSS Composite Electrode. International Journal of Technology. Volume 11(5), pp. 974-983

Gilar Wisnu Hardi Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Siti Fauziyah Rahman Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Amperometric Detection of Dopamine based on a Graphene Oxide/PEDOT:PSS Composite Electrode

Dopamine (DA) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that plays many important roles within the brain and body. It is an organic compound in the catecholamines and phenethylamines groups. A considerable effort has been made since its discovery, and numerous techniques for DA detection have been developed. Graphene and its derivatives have great potential for the development of sensors and biosensors. Since it has excellent characteristics, such as good conductivity and a large surface area, a graphene-based biosensor is expected to have high sensitivity, selectivity, and long-term stability characteristics. Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized using a chemical method through graphite oxidation. Graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly (4-styrenesulfonate) (GO/PEDOT:PSS) composite films were prepared using an electropolymerization method on the surface of the working electrode. The properties of this composite electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performance of the composite film was evaluated using three-electrode systems that consisted of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modifying a composite film electrode as a working electrode, a platinum electrode as an auxiliary electrode, and Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode. The variation of the composite electrode was applied and evaluated to DA electrochemical sensing. The GO/PEDOT:PSS-modified electrode also exhibits high performance with a low detection limit of 1 ?M. The results obtained have shown that GO/PEDOT:PSS/GCE composites are promising candidates for modifying electrode material used in electrochemical sensing.

Biosensor; Dopamine; Electrochemical sensor; Electropolymerization; Graphene oxide; PEDOT:PSS


Dopamine (DA) is one of the important neurotransmitters that plays a role in memory, hormonal, and cardiovascular processes (Sun et al., 2013; Zheng et al., 2015; Rahman, et al., 2016a). Neurological conditions like dementia, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease are likely to cause a deficiency or insufficient DA levels (Ali et al., 2007; Caudle et al., 2008; Guo et al., 2013). Various methods have been developed for the detection of DA. Biosensor-based electrochemical sensors are highly accurate, user friendly, and have a quick response time (Rahman, et al., 2016b; Hayat et al., 2019). Recently, chemically modified electrodes were established and reported with greater sensitivity and selectivity to effectively detect DA (Zhang et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2014).

Graphene is widely used in electrochemical sensor production and holds great promise as an ideal candidate for sensing platforms. Materials based on graphene play an important role in every part of the environment (Arifutzzaman et al., 2019; Kusrini et al., 2019). Graphene is one of the greatest of recently studied materials, particularly in the field of electronics. It has many applications because of its characteristics, such as being the thinnest, strongest, and most conductive material (Morozov et al., 2008). Graphenes can be effectively used in electrochemical sensing systems for the selective detection of chemical species. One of the methods to synthesize graphene oxide (GO) through chemical synthesis, known as the Hummers method, is achieved by adding an oxidizing agent into the concentrated acid that contains graphite. Many researchers modify the methods to synthesize the graphene (Hummers and Offeman, 1958). One famous modification was carried out by Marcano et al. and is known as the Tour method. The Tour method demonstrates a less risky method since it does not use sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and is a more effective graphite oxidation mechanism (Marcano et al., 2010).

The present research aimed to synthesize graphene oxide and investigate electrochemical studies of GO with poly (3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly (4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) polymer on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). GO was chosen since it is cheaper and easier to spread into a homogeneous PEDOT: PSS solution compared to reduced graphene. The properties of GO are hydrophilic and PEDOT: PSS is soluble in water. The modified electrodes used to study DA oxidation are provided by cyclic voltammetry (CV). 


The graphene oxide synthesis was achieved by mixing graphite powder into a concentrated acid medium with the existence of an oxidizing agent. Graphite oxidation using the Tour method is more efficient and less hazardous than other methods because it is cost-effective, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly. There are two major important steps to the synthesis mechanism of graphene oxide, namely oxidation and exfoliation.

The modified GCE by GO/PEDOT: PSS film exhibits high electrocatalytic behavior for DA oxidation. The electropolymerization of GO/PEDOT: PSS on the surface of the electrode exhibits a detection limit of 1 ?A and a wide linear range (1–1,000 ?M). This composite electrode was used for rapid-current response DA detection, which offered a promising method for modified electrode materials.


    We gratefully acknowledge the funding from Universitas Indonesia through Publikasi Terindeks Internasional (PUTI) Q1 2020 No. NKB-1422/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2020. We express our gratitude to Dr. Eng. Arief Udhiarto, S.T., M.T., Head of Laboratory Nanodevice, MRPQ building for the use of his laboratory facilities during this research.


Ali, S.R., Ma, Y., Parajuli, R.R., Balogun, Y., Lai, W.Y.C., He, H., 2007. A Nonoxidative Sensor based on a Self-doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine. Analytical Chemistry, Volume 79(6), pp. 2583–2587

Aravind, S.S.J., Srinivasan, S.K., Ramaprabhu, S., 2011. Au/TiO2 Nanotubes for Selective Detection of Dopamine. International Journal of Nanoscience, Volume 10(4–5), pp. 1185–1189

Arifutzzaman, A., Ismail, A.F., Alam, M.Z., Khan, A.A., Saidur, R., 2019. Investigation of Extraction Yields of Exfoliated Graphene in Deionized Water from Organic Solvents. International Journal of Technology, Volume 10(6), pp. 1251–1259

Caudle, W.M., Colebrooke, R.E., Emson, P.C., Miller, G.W., 2008. Altered Vesicular Dopamine Storage in Parkinson’s Disease: A Premature Demise. Trends in Neurosciences, Volume 31(6), pp. 303–308

Emiru, T.F., Ayele, D.W., 2017. Controlled Synthesis, Characterization and Reduction of Graphene Oxide: A Convenient Method for Large Scale Production. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Volume 4(1), pp. 74–79

Gong, Q.J., Han, H.X., Wang, Y.D., Yao, C.Z., Yang, H.Y., Qiao, J.L., 2020. An Electrochemical Sensor for Dopamine Detection using Poly-Tryptophan Composited Graphene on Glassy Carbon as the Electrode. Xinxing Tan Cailiao/New Carbon Materials, Volume 35(1), pp. 34–41

Guo, Z., Seol, M.L., Kim, M.S., Ahn, J.H., Choi, Y.K., Liu, J.H., Huang, X.J., 2013. Sensitive and Selective Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine using an Electrode Modified with Carboxylated Carbonaceous Spheres. Analyst, Volume 138(9), pp. 2683–2690

Hayat, Moh., Saepudin, E., Einaga, Y., Ivandini, T.A., 2019. CdS Nanoparticle-based Biosensor Development for Aflatoxin Determination. International Journal of Technology, Volume 10(4), pp. 787–797

Higginbotham, A.L., Kosynkin, D.V., Sinitskii, A., Sun, Z., Tour, J.M., 2010. Lower-Defect Graphene Oxide Nanotubes. ACS Nano, Volume 4(4), pp. 2059–2069

Hummers, W.S., Offeman, R.E., 1958. Preparation of Graphitic Oxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Volume 80(6), p. 1339

Kusrini, E., Suhrowati, A., Usman, A., Khalil, M., Degirmenci, V., 2019. Synthesis and Characterization of Graphite Oxide, Graphene Oxide, and Reduced Graphene Oxide from Graphite Waste using Modified Hummers’ Method and Zinc as Reducing Agent. International Journal of Technology, Volume 10(6), pp. 1093–1104

Marcano, D.C., Kosynkin, D.V., Berlin, J.M., Sinitskii, A., Sun, Z., Slesarev, A., Alemany, L.B., Lu, W., Tour, J.M., 2010. Improved Synthesis of Graphene Oxide. ACS Nano, Volume 4(8), pp. 4806–4814

Morozov, S.V., Novoselov, K.S., Katsnelson, M.I., Schedin, F., Elias, D.C., Jaszczak, J.A., Geim, A.K., 2008. Giant Intrinsic Carrier Mobilities in Graphene and Its Bilayer. Physical Review Letters, Volume 100(1), pp. 11–14

Paulchamy, B., Arthi, G., Lignesh, B., 2015. A Simple Approach to Stepwise Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterial. Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Volume 06(01), pp. 1–4

Rahman, S.F., Gobikhrisnan, S., Gozan, M., Jong, G.T., Park, D.H., 2016a. L-DOPA Synthesis using Tyrosinase-Immobilized on Electrode Surfaces. Korean Chemical Engineering Research, Volume 54(6), pp. 817–821

Rahman, S.F., Min, K., Park, S.H., Park, J.H., Yoo, J.C., Park, D.H., 2016b. Highly Sensitive and Selective Dopamine Detection by an Amperometric Biosensor based on Tyrosinase/MWNT/GCE. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, Volume 33(12), pp. 3442–3447

Sun, W., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Ju, X., Xu, L., Li, G., Sun, Z., 2013. Application of Graphene-SnO2 Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for the Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine. Electrochimica Acta, Volume 87, pp. 317–322

Wang, J., Hui, N., 2017. A Nanocomposite Consisting of Flower-Like Cobalt Nanostructures, Graphene Oxide and Polypyrrole for Amperometric Sensing of Nitrite. Microchimica Acta, Volume 184(7), pp. 2411–2418

Wu, D., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, P., Wei, Q., Du, B., 2014. Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor for Simultaneous Determination of Dopamine, Ascorbic Acid, and Uric Acid Enhanced by Amino-Group Functionalized Mesoporous Fe3O4@Graphene Sheets. Electrochimica Acta, Volume 116, pp. 244–249

Xu, T.Q., Zhang, Q.L., Zheng, J.N., Lv, Z.Y., Wei, J., Wang, A.J., Feng, J.J., 2014. Simultaneous Determination of Dopamine and Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid using Pt Nanoparticles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide. Electrochimica Acta, Volume 115, pp. 109–115

Xu, X.L., Huang, F., Zhou, G.L., Zhang, S., Kong, J.L., 2010. A Novel Electrochemical Sensor for Probing Doxepin Created on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly(4-Amino- Benzoic Acid)/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Film. Sensors, Volume 10(9), pp. 8398–8410

Zhang, B., Huang, D., Xu, X., Alemu, G., Zhang, Y., Zhan, F., Shen, Y., Wang, M., 2013. Simultaneous Electrochemical Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid with Helical Carbon Nanotubes. Electrochimica Acta, Volume 91, pp. 261–266

Zheng, X., Guo, Y., Zheng, J., Zhou, X., Li, Q., Lin, R., 2015. Simultaneous Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid using Poly(L-Leucine)/DNA Composite Film Modified Electrode. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, Volume 213, pp. 188–194