• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 3 (2021)

Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Marphysa moribidii Extract: Optimization of Synthesis Parameters

Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Marphysa moribidii Extract: Optimization of Synthesis Parameters

Title: Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Marphysa moribidii Extract: Optimization of Synthesis Parameters
Nur Syakirah Rabiha Rosman, Mohammad Asyraf Adhwa Masimen, Noor Aniza Harun, Izwandy Idris, Wan Iryani Wan Ismail

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Cite this article as:
Rosman, N.S.R., Masimen, M.A.A., Harun, N.A., Idris, I., Ismail, W.I.W., 2021. Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Marphysa moribidii Extract: Optimization of Synthesis Parameters. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(3), pp. 635-648

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Nur Syakirah Rabiha Rosman 1. Cell Signaling and Biotechnology Research Group (CeSBTech), Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia 2. Biological Securit
Mohammad Asyraf Adhwa Masimen 1. Cell Signaling and Biotechnology Research Group (CeSBTech), Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia 2. Biological Securit
Noor Aniza Harun 1. Advanced Nano Materials (ANOMA) Research Group, Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia 2. Higher Institution Centre of E
Izwandy Idris South China Sea Repository and Reference Centre, Institute of Oceanography and Environment (INOS), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
Wan Iryani Wan Ismail 1. Cell Signaling and Biotechnology Research Group (CeSBTech), Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia 2. Biological Securit
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Marphysa moribidii Extract: Optimization of Synthesis Parameters

Interest in biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is steadily increasing due to the cost-effective, easy, and environmentally friendly way in which they are synthesized. Synthesis using polychaete (Marphysa moribidii) extract as a reducing agent is particularly new and has the potential of being applied in various industries. However, biogenic AgNPs require synthesis optimization to increase their stability, yield, and characteristics. To meet these requirements, several synthesis parameters (such as polychaete size (body width), silver nitrate (AgNO3) concentration, pH of polychaete crude extract, and the temperature during pre-incubation) and storage conditions were optimized in this study. The optimized conditions for obtaining high yield and stable AgNPs were polychaetes with a body width of 6–8 mm, 1 mM AgNO3 with polychaete crude extract of pH 9, preheated at 90°C for 15 min before incubation at 30°C (150 rpm) for 24 hours, and stored at 4°C for long-term stability. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed through observation of a color transition (from pinkish to yellowish-brown) and analysis of UV-Vis spectra (between 398 and 400 nm). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of spherical AgNPs with an average size of approximately 40.19 nm. Further, the optimized AgNPs demonstrated high storage stability for up to 6 months without any agglomeration. It is believed that these parameters are eminently suitable for the production of stable biosynthesized AgNPs.

Biosynthesis; Marphysa moribidii; Optimization; Polychaetes; Silver nanoparticles

Introduction

        Research into nanotechnology has garnered significant interest worldwide over the last few decades due to its superior physical, chemical, and biological properties compared to its bulk form (Usman et al., 2018; Khalil et al., 2019). One of the most promising nanoparticles in the scientific world is silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). 

These are 10 to 100 nm in size and have superior physicochemical and antimicrobial properties, mainly due to their large surface area per volume ratio (Jeevanandam et al., 2018). Accordingly, AgNPs have been incorporated in various fields, including diagnosis, therapeutics, electrical, antimicrobial action, and catalysis (Zhang et al., 2016; Lee and Jun, 2019; Nakamura et al., 2019).

Conventionally, AgNPs have been synthesized by utilizing physical and chemical methods, which are costly and produce substances that are harmful to organisms and the environment (Zhang et al., 2016). However, numerous chemical and physical methods have been substituted by biological approaches in the last few years (Nakamura et al., 2019) that are environmentally sustainable and economical, as no toxic or expensive chemicals are utilized in the synthesis (Lee and Jun, 2019). In biological synthesis, two main components are required to initiate synthesis: a silver precursor such as silver nitrate (AgNO3) and a biomolecule cocktail extracted from living organisms that concurrently act as reducing and stabilizing agents (Siddiqi et al., 2018). These biomolecules react with silver ion (Ag+) and are reduced to AgNPs of various forms and sizes and act as capping agents to stabilize AgNPs (Zhang et al., 2016).

Microorganisms and plants are commonly exploited as reducing agents in this method since they are widely available in nature (Lee and Jun, 2019; Nakamura et al., 2019). Synthesizing AgNPs from invertebrate marine sources (especially polychaetes) is a relatively recent process. The polychaete is commonly referred to as a segmented worm (or marine worm) and belongs to the class of Polychaeta (Phylum Annelida). Polychaetes are generally used as pollution indicators, fish broodstock, and fish bait (Gaete et al., 2017; Cole et al., 2018; Masimen et al., 2020). Previous studies have indicated that some marine polychaetes can synthesize AgNPs (Singh et al., 2014; Hussain et al., 2018). However, synthesis was initiated utilizing species other than Marphysa moribidii (locally known as ‘ruat bakau’). This is from the Eunicidae family and is harvested locally to be used as bait worm for recreational or artisanal fisheries (Idris et al., 2014). Using M. moribidii as a reducing agent in AgNP synthesis can increase the polychaete’s commercial value, especially in Malaysia.

Although M. moribidii extract can function as a reducing agent in AgNP synthesis, biological synthesis requires optimization to produce higher quality AgNPs with desirable traits for industrial purposes (Velgosova et al., 2017; Nair et al., 2018). Synthesis parameters such as the body width of polychaete, storage conditions of AgNPs, pH values, temperature, and precursor concentration can be manipulated to produce AgNPs of different shapes and sizes. Further, this optimization process can significantly stabilize AgNPs (Zhang et al., 2016). Thus, this paper presents the optimization process conditions for AgNP synthesis using M. moribidii by varying parameters such as the body width of polychaete, storage conditions of AgNPs, AgNO3 concentration, pH of polychaete crude extract, and the temperature during the pre-incubation period.

Conclusion

    This research has demonstrated the successful optimization of biogenic AgNPs synthesized from marine polychaete (M. moribidii). The protocol was optimized, offering rapid production of AgNPs with increased stability and characteristics. The present investigation concluded that the green synthesis of AgNPs utilizing marine invertebrates (M. moribidii) as reducing and stabilizing agents offered many advantages. These included being economical, straightforward, and eco-friendly, which can scale up economic viability. Future studies could consider exploring possible applications of biosynthesized AgNPs, especially in healthcare. The findings of this research can be useful as a reference for biogenic AgNPs and green nanotechnology research, with the aim of discovering more marine polychaetes with the potential to be utilized as reducing and stabilizing agents in AgNP synthesis.

Acknowledgement

    We would like to thank the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, and the Universiti Malaysia Terengganu for their funding (FRGS/1/2016/WAB09/UMT/02/2).

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