• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 1 (2021)

Behavioral Intention of e-Learning: A Case Study of Distance Learning at a Junior High School in Indonesia due to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Behavioral Intention of e-Learning: A Case Study of Distance Learning at a Junior High School in Indonesia due to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Title: Behavioral Intention of e-Learning: A Case Study of Distance Learning at a Junior High School in Indonesia due to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Muhamad Asvial, Jihar Mayangsari, Alvin Yudistriansyah

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Cite this article as:
Asvial, M., Mayangsari, J., Yudistriansyah, A., 2021. Behavioral Intention of e-Learning: A Case Study of Distance Learning at a Junior High School in Indonesia due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(1), pp. 54-64

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Muhamad Asvial Graduate Program in Telecommunications Management, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Jihar Mayangsari Graduate Program in Telecommunications Management, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Alvin Yudistriansyah Sigma Cipta Caraka, Jakarta Selatan 12710, Indonesia
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Abstract
Behavioral Intention of e-Learning: A Case Study of Distance Learning at a Junior High School in Indonesia due to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The spread of COVID-19 caused schools that previously used only a face-to-face system to deliver instruction online from home, a method commonly called e-learning. e-Learning is extremely beneficial in providing cost-effective education irrespective of time and geographical boundaries. Despite the benefit of e-learning, there are many problems associated with its use in Indonesia. Based on the results of research by Indonesian Child Protection Commission (KPAI), the application of e-learning in secondary schools in Indonesia is quite challenging. There is currently an education gap between the able and disadvantaged groups in Indonesia currently created by e-learning. This study aims to assess the behavior intention of e-learning at junior high schools in Jakarta and Tangerang, Indonesia, due to the impact of COVID19. The research model is based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of a technology framework. The behavioral intention of performance expectation, effort expectancy, attitude, facilitating condition, social influence, and cost were examined. Data were collected by administering questionnaires to respondents who studied at the junior high schools in Jakarta and Tangerang. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that the social influence of e-learning has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intention. The findings of the study contribute to the understanding of behavioral beliefs about e-learning in Jakarta and Tangerang due to COVID-19. This contribution could be a reference for the government in improving the education system for e-learning during COVID-19.

Behavior intention; Covid-19; E-learning; UTAUT; SEM

Introduction

According to Zahedi and Dehghan (2019), e-learning is considered as using electronic technology to access educational programs via internet. With the use of technology and automation will play a significant role in increasing productivity (Berawi, 2020). These days, distance is no longer a barrier to communication. Sending a mail, making a call, and text messaging can be done via the Internet, and even video calls can be done in real time. With technology, many people have meetings with other people in different places through video conferences. One of the developments in the use of video conferencing is e-learning or distance learning.

There are many benefits of e-learning for students and teachers. e-Learning can help reduce  education costs  and can effectively  be carried out in an effective time and without geographical boundaries (Cheng, 2011; Chen, 2011). Among many others, an advantage of e-learning is the ease of accessing learning material anywhere by connecting to the internet (Ong et al., 2004; Al-Rahmi et al., 2018). Some studies found that despite its flexibility, ease, and cost-effectiveness, there are still many problems encountered in e-learning learning. Researchers have found that the problem with e-learning is the limited ability of students’ perceptions of e-learning systems (Almaiah and Mulhem, 2018). Some problems can only be solved if students and students can use this e-learning system properly (Pituch and Lee, 2006; Chaka and Govender, 2017). Students' perceptions regarding the motivation to use e-learning due to the success of the learning process with e-learning is assisted by students’ acceptance of its actual use (Salloum et al., 2019). Further, the success of e-learning is seen by increasing students’ competencies, abilities, knowledge, user satisfaction, and behavioral intentions (Al-Qahtani et al., 2013; Mohammadi, 2015; Al-Rahmi et al., 2018). Based on studies (Dachyar et al., 2015) on the development of an organizational model strategy through information systems in higher education, it shows a lack of adequate human resources in technology implementation.

The quality of education in Indonesia is still low and is below that of neighboring countries. Based on research conducted by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Program for International Student Assessment, Indonesia ranked 72 out of 77 countries and scored 371 in the reading, 379 in mathematics and 396 in mathematics science. Therefore, we assumed that e-learning could be difficult to accomplish by most middle-school students in Indonesia from the student’s competencies and knowledge point of view.

The spread of COVID-19 caused a change in activities in the world. Schools that previously used the offline method with a face-to-face system were forced to offer instruction from home through the Internet. Thus, all students in Indonesia must have supporting facilities to connect to the Internet for e-learning. The e-learning system during COVID-19 in Indonesia is called Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh (PJJ). Based on the results of research by the Indonesian Child Protection Commission (KPAI), PJJ in Indonesia currently creates an education gap between the able and disadvantaged groups. This is because the ability to buy Internet credit, computers, or smartphones that are suitable for distance learning is inadequate, added to the high cost of Internet access, electricity, and other supporting facilities that are not in accordance with the income of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the KPAI study involving 246 main respondents, 1,700 comparative students, and 602 teachers, 73.2% of the teachers only gave assignments without interacting with students, which was not effective, and the students reported not liking the distance learning. Based on the results of research by KPAI, the application of e-learning in middle schools in Indonesia is not simple.

Therefore, research on the behavioral intentions of students in e-learning systems in secondary schools is needed. This study was performed in the Greater Jakarta area. Given the high Internet costs in Indonesia and the cost of living in Jakarta and Tangerang, a cost variable was added to the study. In particular, Greater Jakarta was faced with many people affected by layoffs due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study aimed to assess behavior intention of e-learning at junior high schools in Jakarta and Tangerang, Indonesia due to the impact of COVID-19.

Conclusion

From the results of the hypothesis test with t-value, students at the junior high school level in Jakarta and Tangerang participated in distance learning or e-learning due to COVID-19 because of parental encouragement and government regulations. They were not actually interested in learning through e-learning.  Thus, we suggest that the government of Indonesia improves the digital literacy of middle schoolers, includes the  ability  to learn  new  technology  easily,  motivated  to  learn  with information   and   communication   technology,   and   willingness   to   use   information   and communication technology at work (Santoso et al., 2019) by minimizing the digital gap, improving teachers’ quality, and providing supportive facilities prior to establishing policies that mandate e-learning as a standard for instruction delivery.

One of the limitations of our research is the geographical distribution of the subjects. All the respondents were from Jakarta and Tangerang. Therefore, future investigations should examine a larger number of respondents from across Indonesia, especially in rural areas.  Another limitation of this work is that the respondents were surveyed between June and August 2020, a period during which there was no government subsidy on internet fees. Further research on the condition of the behavioral intention of e-learning in junior high schools that includes the entire period of the impact of COVID-19 is neededs.

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