• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 1 (2021)

Computational Method for Designing a Nozzle Shape to Improve the Performance of Pico-Hydro Crossflow Turbines

Computational Method for Designing a Nozzle Shape to Improve the Performance of Pico-Hydro Crossflow Turbines

Title: Computational Method for Designing a Nozzle Shape to Improve the Performance of Pico-Hydro Crossflow Turbines
Warjito, Budiarso, Kevin Celine, Sanjaya Baroar Sakti Nasution

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Cite this article as:
Warjito, Budiarso, Celine, K., Nasution, S.B.S., 2021. Computational Method for Designing a Nozzle Shape to Improve the Performance of Pico-Hydro Crossflow Turbines. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(1), pp. 139-148

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Warjito Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Budiarso Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Kevin Celine Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Sanjaya Baroar Sakti Nasution Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
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Abstract
Computational Method for Designing a Nozzle Shape to Improve the Performance of Pico-Hydro Crossflow Turbines

The nozzle in a crossflow turbine is important because it accelerates the flow of the inlet and directs it to the runner at an angle relative to entrance angle (?1), which is used to obtain the maximum efficiency value. The ?1 value must match the angle of the runner’s outer blade considering the transfer of water from stationary to the rotating coordinates. To obtain the desired ?1 value, the design of the nozzle is essential. In this study, 6-DoF simulations were conducted to find the best nozzle geometry. The incoming flow angles (?) of the nozzle ranged from 50° to 90°. A study without a proper nozzle design was also conducted to compare the results. The results showed that a nozzle geometry of ? = 50° yielded the highest efficiency (60.6%). This study shows that the design of the nozzle in a crossflow turbine significantly affects its performance.

Computational fluid dynamic; Crossflow turbine; Nozzle shape; Pico-hydro

Introduction

         The In 2018, Indonesia’s overall electrification percentage (the percentage of electrified households) was 98.3%. However, in remote areas such as East Nusa Tenggara, it was only 62.07% (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia, 2018). This is due to the demographic and geographic characteristics of remote areas. Remote areas have small, low-income populations and difficult transportation access. To meet the energy demands of remote areas and to accelerate the generation of renewable energy to meet the target of 66% by 2050 (International Renewable Energy Agency, 2017), it is necessary to increase the use of renewable energy resources. Currently, the most widely used renewable energy is hydropower (Kaygusuz, 2010), and Indonesia has many water resources (Asian Development Bank, 2016).

        Pico-hydro is a hydropower plant that generates electricity on a scale of less than 5 kW (Paish, 2002). Pico-hydro crossflow turbines, which have tubular runners with two discs (Sinagra et al., 2014), are suitable for remote areas that require small amounts of electricity. They have high efficiency and long life spans and are economical and environmentally friendly (Adanta et al., 2018b). Other advantages are their simple design and easy manufacture (Warjito et al., 2019).

In designing a crossflow turbine, one of the most critical components besides the blade is the nozzle (Chichkhede et al., 2016).  The nozzle must be able to direct the flow so that it is  properly  distributed  and  the  angle  of  flow  matches  the  angle  of  the blade inlet (?1(Adhikari and Wood, 2017). To obtain the desired flow conditions, the inlet discharge angle (?) is an important parameter.

     Adanta et al. (2018b) designed and manufactured a crossflow turbine. However, their experimental results showed that the turbine had low efficiency. This is because in the design process, they only focused on calculating the geometry of the blade, whereas the nozzle geometry was not taken into account. Therefore, this study aimed to redesign the nozzle for Adanta et al. (2018b) turbine based on Sammartano et al. (2013), who reported efficiency of 82%.

Conclusion

In this study, the optimal angle ? of the nozzle in cases 1 and 2 was 50°. The highest efficiency was obtained in case 1 (60.6%). This study shows that the design of the nozzle in a crossflow turbine greatly affects its performance.

Acknowledgement

            This work was supported by the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education (KEMENRISTEK DIKTI) of the Republic of Indonesia with grant number NKB-2959/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2020.

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