Published at : 25 Jan 2021
Volume : IJtech Vol 12, No 1 (2021)
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v12i1.4218
|Alfian Hardi Qurrahman||1. Master of System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia 2. Departement of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada|
|Wahyu Wilopo||1. Master of System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia 2. Departement of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada|
|Sigit Ponco Susanto||PT Geodipa Energi Unit Dieng, Wonosobo, Indonesia|
|Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrus||1. Master of System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia 2. Unconventional Georesources Research Center, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadja|
and exergy analyses are conducted at the Dieng Geothermal Power Plant to
determine the energy loss of components by calculating the efficiency, rate of
change in energy flow, and exergy loss of each component. The data were collected
on each component, including production wells, turbines, the main condenser,
inter-condensers, and cooling towers, with the data collection occurring from
April 2017 to March 2018. Energy and exergy analyses begin by calculating the
enthalpy and entropy of both input and output from the compiled temperature
data, with the help of a steam table. The study results show that the lowest
efficiency was 67% in the turbine, and the highest energy change rate seen was
5.8×104 kW, in the inter-condenser. In addition, the greatest
exergy loss was 50 Mw, which occurred in the turbine, indicating it was the
component most in need of repair. In summary, the study results clarified that
the component that needed to be treated and repaired at the Dieng Geothermal
Power Plant was the turbine.
Dieng Geothermal Power Plant; Efficiency; Energy; Exergy
The world’s greatest geothermal potential of approximately 40% is located in Indonesia due to a concentration of high-temperature geothermal resources (Bina et al., 2018b). This geothermal potential is flattened along volcanic lines that run from the regions of Sumatra, Java, Nusa Tenggara, and Sulawesi to Maluku (Mary et al., 2017). The total potential geothermal power in Indonesia is 29,543 Mwe, consisting of resources of 11,997 Mwe and reserves of 17,546 Mwe (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2015). However, this potential has not been successfully exploited, especially in power generation(Nasruddin. et al., 2016). It was estimated that in 2025, the installed capacity in Indonesia will only reach 9500 Mw (Elfani, 2011), with only 4.5% of the total exploited resources used as an electrical energy supply in Indonesia (Bina et al., 2018b). However, geothermal power plants can provide constant power based on the installed geothermal power plant capacity (Günther, 2018).
According to Eliasson et al. (2011), there are three types of geothermal systems, namely, the flash system characterized by a two-phase flow, the dry system characterized by a vapor-dominated flow, and a binary system characterized by a liquid-dominated flow. The Dieng Geothermal Power Plant in Dieng, Central Java, Indonesia, uses single-flash steam system technology, characterized by the use of large amounts of brine found in geothermal wells (Pambudi et al., 2014).
Energy and exergy analyses have been implemented numerous times in several studies due to the effectiveness of knowing the amount of energy reduction in a component (Dincer and Rosen, 2007). Dieng Geothermal Power Plant has experienced decreased energy in all its components. For example, the energy reduction in the turbine reached 11% of the energy input. The smallest energy reduction was 0.5–2% of the total energy in the input of the main condenser.
Nasruddin et al. (2018) conducted an exergy analysis and exergoeconomic optimization of the binary cycle system at Well Pad 4 of the Dieng Geothermal Power Plant using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. By applying the optimum parameters, the power plant had minimum values of total energy destruction of 742.4 kW and a total annual cost of 36,723 US dollars.
The organic Rankine cycle (ORC), with isopentane as the operating fluid, and the Kalina cycle, with an ammonia–water mixture, used in the system for power production at the geothermal power plant at Ampallas, West Sulawesi, were investigated by Nasruddin et al. (2020). They reported that the ORC system had the best exergy efficiency, at 82.12%.
Similarly, energy and exergy analyses were conducted by Ulum et al. (2017) at the Mount Salak Geothermal Power Plant’s Unit 1-2-3. They concluded that the largest exergy loss was recorded in the condenser, of around 27.84% of the total exergy of 302.42 MWe. Further, Rudiyanto et al. (2017) conducted an analysis at the Kamojang Geothermal Power Plant and reported that the system had an overall efficiency of 35.86% of the potential 309,000 kW being used. Exergy analysis has also been conducted at the Dieng Geothermal Power Plant by Pambudi et al. (2014). In that analysis, the greatest exergy losses were 13.5% in the separator and 12.94% in the turbine. Using thermodynamic analysis, Pambudi et al. (2015) showed that the performance of the geothermal power plant could be improved by changing from a single-flash system to a double-flash system.
However, a previous study by Pambudi et al. (2014) tended to focus on only four well pads and one month of data collection. In this study, the analysis is conducted for seven well pads, and data were collected for one year, from April 2017 through March 2018. The larger quantity of data used in the analysis process permitted a more thorough review and evaluation of the potential geothermal energy resources with the aim of increasing the total exploited energy in existing areas.
achieve the study’s goal, energy and exergy analyses were used in the study,
and the results can be used to make improvements aimed at reaching the most
favorable conditions by determining which components need to be repaired at the
Dieng Geothermal Power Plant.
major change in the energy flow rate at the Dieng Geothermal Power Plant
occurred in the condenser, which had the highest value of 5.8×104 kW.
This was because the incoming temperature was lower than the outgoing
temperature in the inter-condenser. The Dieng Geothermal Power Plant’s turbine
efficiency was between 70% and 80%, which is still in the reliable category
according to the reference between 60% and 80%. The efficiency of the cooling
towers remained good from April 2017 to August 2017, with values above 80%.
However, it decreased in September 2017 to 70%. The highest exergy loss that
occurred in the turbine was 50 Mw. This was because the incoming steam
temperature was still quite high, so the energy content in the turbine was
excessive. In conclusion, the Dieng Geothermal Power Plant has to reduce the
incoming steam temperature to the turbine in order to reduce the exergy loss.
This would result in the power generated by the generator increasing.
authors would like to thank PT Geodipa Energy Unit Dieng for their support and
for the data they provided. The authors would also like to thank Universitas Gadjah
Mada for the support.
Balta, M.T., Dincer, I., Hepbasli, A., 2010. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a New Four-Step Copper-Chlorine Cycle for Geothermal-Based Hydrogen Production. Energy, Volume 35(8), pp. 3263–3272
Bina, S.M., Jalilinasrabady, S., Fujii, H., 2018a. Exergoeconomic Analysis and Optimization of Single and Double Flash Cycles for Sabalan Geothermal Power Plant. Geothermics, Volume 72, pp. 74–82
Bina, S.M., Jalilinasrabady, S., Fujii, H., Pambudi, N.A., 2018b. Classification of Geothermal Resources in Indonesia by Applying Exergy Concept. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 93, pp. 499–506
Damaputra, M.K., Rachmat, A., Koswara, E., 2019. Cooling Tower Unit 3 Efficiency Comparison and Cooling Process in PT. Indonesia Power Generation Unit and Generation Services (UPJP) Kamojang, pp. 43–46
Dincer, I., Rosen, M.A., 2007. Exergy: Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development. Elsevier Ltd., Philadelphia, PA, USA
DiPippo, R., 2015. Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications, Case Studies and Environmental Impact. 4th Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK
Elfani, M., 2011. The Impact of Renewable Energy on Employment in Indonesia. International Journal of Technology, Volume 2(1), pp. 47–55
Eliasson, E. T., Thorhallsson, S., & Steingrímsson, B. (2011). Geothermal power plants. Presented at “Short Course on Geothermal Drilling, Resource Development and Power Plants”, Organized by UNU-GTP and LaGeo, in Santa Tecla, El Salvador, 16–22.
Gökgedik, H., Yürüsoy, M., Keçeba?, A., 2016. Improvement Potential of a Real Geothermal Power Plant using Advanced Exergy Analysis. Energy, Volume 112, pp. 254–263
Günther, M., 2018. Challenges of a 100% Renewable Energy Supply in the Java–Bali Grid. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(2), pp. 257–266
Mary, R.T., Armawi, A., Hadna, A.H., Pitoyo, A.J., 2017. Geothermal as a Treasure towards National Energy Resilience. National Defence, Volume 23(2), pp. 93–113
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2017. Indonesia Geothermal Potential. Jakarta, Indonesia
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2015. Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources for 2015–2019. Jakarta, Indonesia
Nasruddin, N., Alhamid, M.I., Daud, Y., Surachman, A., Sugiyono, A., Aditya, H.B., Mahlia, T.M., 2016. Potential of Geothermal Energy for Electricity Generation in Indonesia: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 53, pp. 733–740
Nasruddin, N., Nasution, S., Aisyah, N., Surachman, A., Wibowo, A.S., 2018. Exergy Analysis and Exergoeconomic Optimization of a Binary Cycle System using a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(2), pp. 275–286
Nasruddin, N., Dwi Saputra, I., Mentari, T., Bardow, A., Marcelina, O., Berlin, S., 2020. Exergy, Exergoeconomic, and Exergoenvironmental Optimization of the Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant at Ampallas, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, Volume 19, 100625
Pambudi, N.A., Itoi, R., Jalilinasrabady, S., Jaelani, K., 2014. Exergy Analysis and Optimization of Dieng Single-Flash Geothermal Power Plant. Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 78, pp. 405–411
Pambudi, N.A., Itoi, R., Jalilinasrabady, S., Jaelani, K., 2015. Performance Improvement of a Single-Flash Geothermal Power Plant in Dieng, Indonesia, Upon Conversion to a Double-Flash System using Thermodynamic Analysis. Renewable Energy, Volume 80, pp. 424–431
Rudiyanto, B., Illah, I., Pambudi, N.A., Cheng, C.C., Adiprana, R., Imran, M., Huat Saw, L., Handogo, R., 2017. Preliminary Analysis of Dry-Steam Geothermal Power Plant by Employing Exergy Assessment: Case Study in Kamojang Geothermal Power Plant, Indonesia. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Volume 10, pp. 292–301
Ulum, B., Nurrohman, N., Ambarita, E., Gaos, Y.S., 2017. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Mount Salak Geothermal Power Plant Unit 1-2-3. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 1217–1228
Yao, S., Zhang, Y., Yu, X., 2018. Thermo-Economic Analysis of a Novel Power Generation System Integrating a Natural Gas Expansion Plant with a Geothermal ORC in Tianjin, China. Energy, Volume 164, pp. 602–614
Zarrouk, S.J., Moon, H., 2014.
Efficiency of Geothermal Power Plants: A Worldwide Review. Geothermics,
Volume 51, pp. 142–153