• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 4 (2021)

Comparison of Ozone Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment Hybrid with Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor in Removal of Remazol Black 5

Comparison of Ozone Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment Hybrid with Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor in Removal of Remazol Black 5

Title: Comparison of Ozone Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment Hybrid with Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor in Removal of Remazol Black 5
I Wayan Koko Suryawan, Iva Yenis Septiariva, Qomarudin Helmy, Suprihanto Notodarmojo, Marita Wulandari, Novi Kartika Sari, Ariyanti Sarwono, Riska Pratiwi, Jun-Wei Lim

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Cite this article as:
Suryawan, I.W.K., Septiariva, I.Y., Helmy, Q., Notodarmojo, S., Wulandari, M., Sari, N.K., Sarwono, A., Pratiwi, R., Lim, J., 2021. Comparison of Ozone Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment Hybrid with Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor in Removal of Remazol Black 5. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(4), pp. 728-738

I Wayan Koko Suryawan Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Infrastructure Planning, Universitas Pertamina, Komplek Universitas Pertamina, Jalan Sinabung II, Terusan Simprug, Jakarta 12220, Indonesia
Iva Yenis Septiariva Study Program of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jalan Ir Sutami 36A Surakarta, Jawa Tengah 57126, Indonesia
Qomarudin Helmy Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Komplek Universitas Pertamina, Jl. Ganesha No.10, Lb. Siliwangi, Kecamatan Coblong
Suprihanto Notodarmojo Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Komplek Universitas Pertamina, Jl. Ganesha No.10, Lb. Siliwangi, Kecamatan Coblong
Marita Wulandari Environmental Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Kalimantan, Balikpapan, 76127, Indonesia
Novi Kartika Sari Environmental Engineering Study Program, Department of Infrastructure Technology and Regional, Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Jl. Terusan Ryacudu, Lampung 35365, Indonesia
Ariyanti Sarwono Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Infrastructure Planning, Universitas Pertamina, Komplek Universitas Pertamina, Jalan Sinabung II, Terusan Simprug, Jakarta 12220, Indonesia
Riska Pratiwi Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Komplek Universitas Pertamina, Jl. Ganesha No.10, Lb. Siliwangi, Kecamatan Coblong
Jun-Wei Lim Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, HICoE-Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
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Comparison of Ozone Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment Hybrid with Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor in Removal of Remazol Black 5

The purpose of this research is to investigate wastewater treatment with ozone pre-treatment and post-treatment integrated with Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR). Ozonation as a pre-treatment served to increase the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)/Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ratio while as a post-treatment to remove the remaining organic residues. Ozone doses were 1 mg/min, 4 mg/min, 20 mg/min, and 40 mg/min. In the pre-treatment, ozone produced a BOD/COD value of 0.68. The MBBR process had a COD and color removal efficiency of 68.89% and 67%, respectively. In the MBBR process without ozone pre-treatment, the efficiency of COD and color removal were 79.31% and 64.7%, respectively. The effluent treatment results from MBBR were then processed with ozone and showed the highest COD and color removal results of 76.8% and 99%, respectively. In this study, the processing with ozone as post-treatment was better than the pre-treatment.

COD removal; Color removal; MBBR; Ozone post-treatment; Ozone pre-treatment; RB5


        Dyes are organic compounds having the capability to impart their colors to materials such as textiles and fabrics. To date, the textile industry still contributes significantly to the economic growth of Indonesia (Salamah et al., 2019). This is reflected in the growing demand for dyes in the production and industrial processes. During the coloring process, 10–15% of the dyes are discharged with effluent waste. The high use of coloring agents in certain industrial activities has an unfavorable impact on the increasing amount of pollutants in wastewater. This happens in particular small and medium scale textile industries. It is a common practice to directly discharge the textile industry wastewater into a stream or the environment (Apritama et al., 2020) and this has had a negative environmental impact (Sharfan et al., 2018).

Dyes used for textiles are frequently natural extracts or synthetic (artificial) dyes. Natural dyes, in comparison to synthetic dyes, are more favorable since they are less carcinogenic (Manikprabhu and Lingappa, 2013). However, the ease in obtaining synthetic dyes and their affordable prices maintains their demand at high levels in the global market. Synthetic dyes in textiles are aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives such as benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and anthracene (Fitriana and Adriani, 2019). Synthetic dyes possess greater stability than natural dyes. Based on the color indexes, the largest and most versatile dyes belong to the azo group, and most of them are reactive. One of the extensively used reactive dyes in textiles, due to its easy application, is Reactive Black 5 or Remazol Black 5 (RB5) (Pratiwi et al., 2018). Based on chemical elements, RB5 contains azo chromophore groups, used as black dyes in textiles. RB5 has the molecular formula C26H21N5Na4O19S6 and a molecular weight of 991.82 g/mol (Bazrafshan et al., 2015; Samadi et al., 2015).

The wastewater treatment in the textile industry can be achieved by chemical, physical, and biological processes or a combination of the three. The biological wastewater treatment is considered one of the simplest and affordable treatment alternatives. This biological wastewater treatment can be integrated with a preliminary treatment such as ozonation (Pratiwi et al., 2018; Suryawan et al., 2019). Ozonation can degrade the color RB5 and, consequently, generate aromatic and aliphatic acids convert it into CO2 and H2O. On the contrary, when ozone is used separately, the optimum result of processing cannot be accomplished. Thus, the combination of ozone treatment with biological treatment such as MBBR is highly recommended. Textile wastewater processing with activated sludge requires 2-5 days of hydraulic retention time (Haddad et al., 2018). This technology must maintain the amount of dissolved oxygen with aeration (Anaokar et al., 2018; Suryawan et al., 2020a). The activated sludge process is very sensitive to shock loads, especially the organic loading rate (Manai et al., 2017) and the salinity (Mirbolooki et al., 2017). Advanced treatment with filtration such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis in textile wastewater treatment can cause dye molecules to clog the membrane pores (Kumar et al., 2019).

      MBBR has emerged as a promising technology since it has an anti-shock capability and high biomass density (Gong, 2016). In addition, MBBR has a high biofilm and long sludge retention time (Jabri et al., 2019). Borkar et al. (2013) stated that MBBR could potentially overcome the challenges in industrial wastewater by improving the efficiency of both conventional treatment systems and removing nutrients, reducing sludge production due to long biomass retention time, minimizing process complexity such as backwashing and maintenance, and providing affordable cycle. The application of ozone can be utilized as pre- or post-treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the efficacy of the ozone technology as pre-treatment and post-treatment in the MBBR technology. 


The results of color, COD, and BOD removal from wastewater subjected to pre-treatment and post-treatment with ozone meet the textile industry wastewater quality standards. However, the treatment with ozone post-treatment provides better efficiency than the pre-treatment. More than 99% of color removal could be achieved with each ozone dose. The concentration of COD in effluence reached 89.6 mg/L and 53.44 mg/L with ozone pre-treatment and post-treatment, respectively. Even though it has met the quality standards of COD, the COD content in RB5 wastewater did not reach the mineralization stage. A color efficiency of up to 99% was used as the basis for enhancing the value of textile waste, which gives an unusual color to the water bodies. A pilot study is needed to test the effectiveness of the technology for both the ozone pre-treatment and post-treatment along with the MBBR process.


    The research was performed within the ITB-P3MI research scheme and co-funded by the Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (Ristek-Dikti).


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