• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 12, No 3 (2021)

Efficacy of a Natural Papain-Induced Enzyme on Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Hand and Body Lotions with Added Orange Peel Extract

Efficacy of a Natural Papain-Induced Enzyme on Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Hand and Body Lotions with Added Orange Peel Extract

Title: Efficacy of a Natural Papain-Induced Enzyme on Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Hand and Body Lotions with Added Orange Peel Extract
Indah Yuniarti, Enrico Fendy Sapatra, Sagitha Fitri Novia, Hovivah, Vita Paramita, Mohamad Endy Yulianto

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Cite this article as:
Yuniarti, I., Sapatra, E.F., Novia, S.F., Hovivah, Paramita, V., Yulianto, M.E., 2021. Efficacy of a Natural Papain-Induced Enzyme on Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Hand and Body Lotions with Added Orange Peel Extract. International Journal of Technology. Volume 12(3), pp. 661-670

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Indah Yuniarti Chemical Industrial Engineering Technology, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Enrico Fendy Sapatra Chemical Industrial Engineering Technology, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Sagitha Fitri Novia Chemical Industrial Engineering Technology, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Hovivah Chemical Industrial Engineering Technology, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Vita Paramita Chemical Industrial Engineering Technology, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Mohamad Endy Yulianto Chemical Industrial Engineering Technology, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
Efficacy of a Natural Papain-Induced Enzyme on Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Hand and Body Lotions with Added Orange Peel Extract

The objective of this research was to determine the effect of addition of natural papain enzyme on virgin coconut oil production and to characterise the physical quality of hand and body lotions made with virgin coconut oil. A natural papain enzyme was extracted to separate the virgin coconut oil from blondo and water, and the virgin coconut oil was then made into a hand and body lotion. The highest yield of virgin coconut oil (13.8±5.30%) was obtained with a 45% papain enzyme extract. The virgin coconut oil had an acid number of 0.135±0.50%, which fulfilled the SNI 7381:2008 standard for acid numbers. The peroxide number for the virgin coconut oil was 1.16±0.51 meq/kg and in accordance with the SNI 7382:2008 standard for peroxide numbers. The organoleptic test for hand and body lotion products prepared from the virgin coconut oil extracted with the papain enzyme was carried out with 32 respondents. The lotion colour had adequate acceptance by the respondents, who also viewed the lotion texture, homogeneity and humidity as satisfactory.

Body lotion; Vegetable oil; Virgin coconut oil

Introduction

For the past two decades, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) fruit has gained popularity due to the stability and benefits of the saturated fatty acids in its triglycerides (Satheeshan et al., 2020). In Indonesia, coconut fruit is typically used in cooking for its good flavour. However, the value of coconut fruit can be increased by processing it to produce coconut oil. According to Harimurti et al. (2020), two types of coconut oil can be obtained: ordinary coconut oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). Both types have many benefits; for example, ordinary coconut oil can be processed for use as an alternative fuel to replace petroleum diesel fuel (Muharam and Putri, 2018), while VCO can be used to maintain skin smoothness and moisture because of its lauric acid content (Harimurti et al., 2020).

    VCO is easy to produce using simple methods. Enzymatic methods are particularly advantageous because enzymes are nontoxic accelerating agents and are active at low concentrations. Enzymes are also produced from natural materials, so they are environmentally friendly (Harimurti et al., 2020). One enzyme that can be used to produce VCO is papain, a proteolytic sulphydryl protease enzyme found in the fruit sap, stems and leaves of the papaya plant (Carica papaya L.). The papain enzyme is easy to obtain at anaffordable price (Setiadi and Hidayah, 2018). In VCO production, papain can help break the lipoprotein bonds in coconut milk emulsions to release the oil for collection (Silaban et al., 2014). Papain is therefore a useful active ingredient for producing skin cleansing creams, especially for the face and for dissolving dead cells that are difficult to physically detach from the human skin (Soda and Agustini, 2013). VCO can soften and moisturise the skin, so it can be used as the base material for producing skin lotions. The benefits of hand and body lotions can be further improved by adding an antioxidant agent to slow down the production of wrinkles and stop premature aging (Park et al., 2014). Orange peel is a good antioxidant with more activity than the flesh of the orange fruit (Hegazy and Ibrahium, 2012).

    The present research focuses on the novel application of a natural papain extract from papaya leaves for VCO production. The papain extract was prepared using a maceration method. Specifically, the effects of the addition of a natural papain extract were examined on the yield, free fatty acid content and peroxide number of the resulting VCO. In addition, the effect of adding an orange peel extract on the pH, density and viscosity of a VCO body lotion was determined.

Conclusion

    The highest yield of VCO, at 13.8±5.30%, was obtained using a 45% papain enzyme extract. The resulting VCO had an acid number of 0.135±0.50%, which fulfilled the SNI 7381:2008 standard for acid numbers, and a peroxide number of 1.16±0.51 meq/kg, which was also in accordance with the SNI 7382:2008 standard for peroxide numbers. Organoleptic tests conducted by 32 respondents on the hand and body lotion products made from VCO prepared using the papain enzyme extract showed that the colour had an adequate acceptance, while the texture, homogeneity and humidity were viewed as satisfactory. Further studies should focus on the isolation process for papain.

Acknowledgement

    This scientific research was partly supported by the Ministry of Higher Education, Indonesia [No.  176-23/UN7.5.1/PG/2016].

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