• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 11, No 4 (2020)

Edible Coating for Beef Preservation from Chitosan Combined with Liquid Smoke

Hera Desvita, Muhammad Faisal, Mahidin Mahidin, Suhendrayatna Suhendrayatna

Corresponding email: mfaisal@unsyiah.ac.id

Cite this article as:
Desvita, H., Faisal, M., Mahidin, Suhendrayatna, 2020. Edible Coating for Beef Preservation from Chitosan Combined with Liquid Smoke. International Journal of Technology. Volume 11(4), pp. 817-829

Hera Desvita School of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Muhammad Faisal Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No.7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Mahidin Mahidin Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No.7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Suhendrayatna Suhendrayatna Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No.7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author


This study aims to determine the effectiveness of chitosan (ch) combined with liquid smoke (Ls) as an edible coating for beef preservation. The Ls used in this study was made from rice hulls pyrolyzed at temperatures of 300° C (T1), 340° C (T2), and 380° C (T3). An edible coating was made by dissolving ch levels of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% (w/v) into 3% Ls. Preservation was accomplished by soaking the beef in an edible coating solution for 15 minutes and subsequently storing it in a refrigerator (4–7°C); it was then observed every 24 hours. A food resistance test was carried out using the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and organoleptic (odor, color, and texture) tests. The odor value in the A4 sample (T1, 1.5% ch) did not change after four days in storage. By comparison, the other samples changed on the third day. Observations revealed that the beef texture did not change until the fourth day in the A4 (T1, 1.5% ch) and C4 (T3, 1.5% ch) samples. Color changes occurred in all samples on the fourth day, but the panelists considered the color values in the C4 sample (pyrolysis temperature 380° C, 1.5% ch) to be acceptable until the ninth day. The quality of the beef that was only preserved with Ls decreased faster than those preserved using a combination of ch and Ls. The longer the storage time, the greater the produced TVB-N value, indicating a reduction in beef freshness. The TVB-N value of the beef preserved with a combination of ch and Ls was lower than the beef preserved without ch. The TVB-N values ??significantly increased after four days in storage. However, all samples remained fresh and met the Indonesian National Standard for meat freshness, wherein the TVB-N values do not exceed 0.20 mgN/100g, until the eighth day. The results revealed that edible coatings made from a combination of ch and Ls can serve as alternative beef preservatives.


Chitosan, Edible coating, Liquid smoke, Rice hulls, Total volatile base


Chitosan (ch)-based edible coatings have seen wide use as preservatives for raw materials, such as beef, poultry, and other processed meat products. As a natural and cheap biopolymer produced from chitin, ch is often used for edible coating. During the deacetylation process, chitin-derived ch from shrimp and crabs consists of ?-(1-4)-2-acetamido-D-glucose and ?-(1-4)-2-amino-D-glucose units with antifungal and antimicrobial properties that are useful as composite materials and in cosmetics, biomedical fields, and food preservation (Abdou et al., 2008; Kusrini et al., 2014; Szymanska and Winnicka, 2015; HPS et al., 2016;  Da silva Santos et al., 2017; Hanafiah et al., 2018). Ch possesses antibacterial and antioxidant properties that can be used as biodegradable packaging (Siripatrawan and Vitchayakitti., 2016).

In addition to its antibacterial properties, ch is stable, biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, and relatively inexpensive (Ojagh et al., 2010; Balamurugan 2012; Pérez-Córdoba et al., 2018; Usman et al., 2018). Ch dissolves well in acidic compounds (pH<6.0) (Shariatinia, 2018) and does not dissolve in the neutral pH range. These properties make ch particularly suitable for the formulation of edible coatings. Thus far, the solvents used in ch include organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, lactate, citric, and succinate,   as well as inorganic solvents, including hydrochloric acid, nitrate, and phosphorus. Using 2.0% ch with the addition of 1.0% acetic acid can provide a strong barrier to oxygen, higher tensile strengths, and lower elongation, prolonging the shelf lives of sausages (Adzaly et al., 2016). Other, cheaper acid compounds can be used as alternatives to dissolve ch. 

Liquid smoke (Ls) can be produced from biomass materials, such as rice hulls, by using the pyrolysis method (Abdullah et al., 2017). In recent years, rice hulls have primarily been used for silica (Dhaneswara et al., 2020), ash (Ramadhansyah et al., 2011), and exothermic material (Idamayanti et al., 2020). Ls has an acidic pH and can serve as a substitute for the more popular acetic acid. In addition to containing acetic acid, Ls comprises phenol compounds that have antibacterial and antioxidant properties (Faisal et al., 2017) that can replace glacial acetic acid. Ls can affect the odors, textures, colors, tastes, and shelf lives of food products. The low pH and phenol compounds in Ls can also damage bacterial cells and inhibit bacterial growth. Edible coatings have been produced by combining ch with various natural ingredients, such as mint (Kanatt et al., 2008), calcium gluconate (Hernandez-Munoz et al., 2008), rosemary extract (Xiao et al., 2010), cassava starch (Araújo et al., 2018), tapioca (Vásconez et al., 2009; Pratama et al., 2019), gelatin (Kumar et al., 2018; Yi et al., 2018), green tea extract (Apriyanti et al., 2018), spermidine, and glycerol (Sabbah et al., 2019). The combination of Ls and ch as an edible coating that is safe for health can also be used as an alternative natural preservative for maintaining the quality of food products.

Edible coatings from ch and Ls have frequently been developed in the food industry, especially for processed meat products (Kanatt et al., 2008). Meats contain complete nutrients, but their quality can decrease due to chemical, microbiological, and physical processes. High protein levels in meat can easily undergo lipid oxidation, which causes decay due to pathogenic microorganisms. Meat preservation is usually carried out by adding natural preservatives, such as garlic (Rakshit and Ramalingam., 2013), eugenol from cloves (Roller et al., 2002), turmeric starch, and gelatin (Tosati et al., 2018) or by freezing, irradiation, cooling technology, and packaging (Zhou et al., 2010). Few studies have investigated edible coatings for food preservation that use both Ls and ch. Strawberries’ shelf lives can be extended to 6 days in the refrigerator (10°C) using 1.0% ch and 1.5% calcium gluconate as preservatives (Hernandez-Munoz et al., 2008), and sausages’ shelf lives can be maintained for up to 15 days in the refrigerator using ch as a preservative (Roller et al., 2002). Edible coatings to preserve beef have already been created from ch and Ls derived from palm shells (Faisal et al., 2019). While adding 3.0% Ls from palm shells with 1.0% ch to meat preserves its taste, odor, and texture so that it is acceptable to consumers six days after storage (Hanafiah et al., 2018), tofu and meatballs can be preserved for three days through a combination of 1.5% Ls and 2.5% ch (Purba et al., 2014). The combination of ch and Ls from rice hulls can serve as an alternative beef preservative. This study aims to determine the feasibility of using ch and Ls from rice hulls as a natural preservative for beef in cold storage.


The present study’s results indicated that edible coatings of Ls from rice hulls that have been modified with ch can be used as natural preservatives for beef. Edible coatings can extend shelf life and affect organoleptic and TVB-N values. Beef quality decreased four days after storage, regardless of whether ch had been added. Beef with ch had a longer shelf life and better organoleptic and TVB-N values than the samples without ch. Ch concentrations affected beef preservation and its organoleptic values. Beef preserved with 1.5% ch had the best organoleptic values of the observed samples, and it remained fresh up to eight days after the beginning of storage.



    The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia and Universitas Syiah Kuala for funding this work.


Abdou, E.S., Nagy, K.S., Elsabee, M.Z., 2008. Extraction and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from Local Sources. Bioresource Technology, Volume 99(5), pp. 13591367

Abdullah, N.A., Putra, N., Hakim, I.I., Koestoer, R.A., 2017. A Review of Improvements to the Liquid Collection System Used in the Pyrolysis Process for Producing Liquid Smoke. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(7), pp. 11971206

Adzaly, N.Z., Jackson, A., Kang, I., Almenar, E., 2016. Performance of a Novel Casing Made of Chitosan Under Traditional Sausage Manufacturing Conditions. Meat Science, Volume 113, pp. 116123

Apriyanti, D., Rokhati, N., Mawarni, N., Khoiriyah, Z., Istirokhatun, T., 2018. Edible Coating from Green Tea Extract and Chitosan to Preserve Strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.). In: MATEC Web of Conferences, Volume 156, pp.  15

Araújo, J.M.S., de Siqueira, A.C.P., Blank, A.F., Narain, N., de Aquino Santana, L.C.L., 2018. A Cassava Starch–Chitosan Edible Coating Enriched with Lippia sidoides Cham. Essential Oil and Pomegranate Peel Extract for Preservation of Italian Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Stored at Room Temperature. Food and Bioprocess Technology, Volume 11(9), pp. 17501760

Balamurugan, M., 2012. Chitosan: A Perfect Polymer Used in Fabricating Gene Delivery and Novel Drug Delivery Systems. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 4(3), pp. 5456

Botta, J.R., Lauder, J.T., Jewer, M.A., 1984. Effect of Methodology on Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB?N) Determination as an Index of Quality of Fresh Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of Food Science, Volume 49(3), pp. 734736

Cayre, M.E., Garro, O., Vignolo, G., 2005. Effect of Storage Temperature and Gas Permeability of Packaging Film on the Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta in Cooked Meat Emulsions. Food Microbiology, Volume 22(6), pp. 505512

Da Silva Santos, F.M., da Silva, A.I.M., Vieira, C.B., de Araújo, M.H., da Silva, A.L.C., das Graças Carneiro-da-Cunha, M., de Souza Bezerra, R., 2017. Use of Chitosan Coating in Increasing the Shelf Life of Liquid Smoked Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillet. Journal of Food Science and Technology, Volume 54(5), pp. 13041311

Dhaneswara, D., Fatriansyah, J.F., Situmorang, F.W., Haqoh, A.N., 2020. Synthesis of Amorphous Silica from Rice Husk Ash: Comparing HCl and CH3COOH Acidification Methods and Various Alkaline Concentrations. International Journal of Technology, Volume 11(1), pp. 200208

Faisal, M., Gani, A., 2018. The Effectiveness of Liquid Smoke Produced from Palm Kernel Shells Pyrolysis as a Natural Preservative in Fish Ball. International Journal of Geomate, Volume 15(47), pp. 145150

Faisal, M., Gani, A., Mulana, F., 2019. Preliminary Assessment of the Utilization of Durian Peel Liquid Smoke as a Natural Preservative for Mackerel [version 6; peer review: 2 approved], F1000Research 2019, Volume 8(240), pp. 119

Faisal, M., Gani, A., Husni., Daimon, H., 2017. A Preliminary Study of the Utilization of Liquid Smoke from Palm Kernel Shells for Organic Mouthwash. International Journal of GEOMATE, Volume 13(37), pp. 116120

Geng, J.T., Takahashi, K., Kaido, T., Kasukawa, M., Okazaki, E., Osako, K., 2019. Relationship among pH, Generation of Free Amino Acids, and Maillard Browning of Dried Japanese Common Squid Todarodes pacificus meat. Food Chemistry, Volume 283, pp. 324330

Ginayanti, L., Faisal, M., Suhendrayatna., 2015. Utilization of Liquid Smoke from Pyrolysis of Palm Oil Shell as a Natural Preservative of Tofu. Jurnal Teknik Kimia USU. Volume 4(3), pp. 711

Hanafiah, M., Faisal, M., Machdar, I., 2018. Potential Utilization of Liquid Smoke Modified Chitosan as an Antimicrobial Edible Coating for Meat Preservation. Jurnal Teknik Kimia USU, Volume 7(2), pp. 611

Hernandez-Munoz, P., Almenar, E., Del Valle, V., Velez, D., Gavara, R., 2008. Effect of Chitosan Coating Combined with Postharvest Calcium Treatment on Strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa) Quality During Refrigerated Storage. Food Chemistry, Volume 110(2), pp. 428435

HPS, A.K., Saurabh, C.K., Adnan, A.S., Fazita, M.N., Syakir, M.I., Davoudpour, Y., Rafatullah, M., Abdullah, C.K., Haafiz, M.K.M., Dungani, R., 2016. A Review on Chitosan-cellulose Blends and Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Biocomposites: Properties and their Applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 150, pp. 216226

Idamayanti, D., Purwadi, W., Bandanadjaja, B., Triadji, R., 2020. Rice Husk Waste as an Exothermic Material for a Riser Sleeve for Steel Casting. International Journal of Technology, Volume 11(1), pp. 7180

Indonesian National Standard, 2008. Quality of Carcass and Beef. The National Standardization Agency of Indonesia

Jinadasa, B.K.K.K., 2014. Determination of Quality of Marine Fishes based on Total Volatile Base Nitrogen Test (TVB-N). Nature and Science, Volume 5(12), pp. 106111

Kanatt, S.R., Chander, R., Sharma, A., 2008. Chitosan and Mint Mixture: A New Preservative for Meat and Meat Products. Food Chemistry, Volume 107(2), pp. 845852

Kumar, K.S., Chrisolite, B., Sugumar, G., Bindu, J., Venkateshwarlu, G., 2018. Shelf Life Extension of Tuna Fillets by Gelatin and Chitosan Based Edible Coating Incorporated with Clove Oil. Fishery Technology, Volume 55(2018), pp. 104113

Kusrini, E., Arbianti, R., Sofyan, N., Abdullah, M.A.A., Andriani, F., 2014. Modification of chitosan by using Samarium for Potential Use in Drug Delivery System. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Volume 120, pp. 7783

Kusrini, E., Shiong, N.S., Harahap, Y., Yulizar, Y., Arbianti, R., Pudjiastuti, A.R., 2015. Effects of Monocarboxylic Acids and Potassium Persulfate on Preparation of Chitosan Nanoparticles. International Journal of Technology, Volume 6(1), pp. 1121

Morachis-Valdez, A.G., Gómez-Oliván, L.M., García-Argueta, I., Hernández-Navarro, M.D., Díaz-Bandera, D., Dublán-García, O., 2017. Effect of Chitosan Edible Coating on the Biochemical and Physical Characteristics of Carp Fillet (Cyprinus carpio) Stored at -18oC. International Journal of Food Science, Volume 2017, pp. 15

Ojagh, S.M., Rezaei, M., Razavi, S.H., Hosseini, S.M.H., 2010. Development and evaluation of a Novel Biodegradable Film Made from Chitosan and Cinnamon Essential Oil with Low Affinity Toward Water. Food Chemistry, Volume 122(1), pp. 161166

Pearson, D., 1968. Assessment of Meat Freshness in Quality Control Employing Chemical Techniques: A Review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Volume 19(7), pp. 357363

Pérez-Córdoba, L.J., Norton, I.T., Batchelor, H.K., Gkatzionis, K., Spyropoulos, F., Sobral, P.J., 2018. Physico-chemical, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Gelatin-chitosan Based Films Loaded with Nanoemulsions Encapsulating Active Compounds. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 79, pp. 544559

Pratama, Y., Abduh, S.B.M., Legowo, A.M., Hintono, A., 2019. Effect of Chitosan-palm Olein Emulsion Incorporation on Tapioca Starch-based Edible Film Properties. International Food Research Journal, Volume 26(1), pp. 203208

Purba, R., Suseno, H.S., Izaky, F.A., Muttaqin, S., 2014. Application of Liquid Smoke and Chitosan as Natural Preservatives for Tofu and Meatballs. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Volume 4(2), pp. 212217

Rakshit, M., Ramalingam, C., 2013. Gum acacia Coating with Garlic and Cinnamon as an Alternate, Natural Preservative for Meat and Fish. African Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 12(4), pp. 406413

Ramadhansyah, P.J., Bakar, B.H.A., Azmi, M.J.M., Ibrahim, M.H.W., 2011. Engineering Properties of Normal Concrete Grade 40 Containing Rice Husk Ash at Different Grinding Times. International Journal of Technology, Volume 2(1), pp. 1019

Robledo, N., López, L., Bunger, A., Tapia, C., Abugoch, L., 2018. Effects of Antimicrobial Edible Coating of Thymol Nanoemulsion/Quinoa protein/Chitosan on the Safety, Sensorial Properties, and Quality of Refrigerated Strawberries (Fragaria× ananassa) Under Commercial Storage Environment. Food and bioprocess technology, Volume 11(8), pp. 15661574

Roller, S., Sagoo, S., Board, R., O’mahony, T., Caplice, E., Fitzgerald, G., Fogden, M., Owen, M., Fletcher, H., 2002. Novel Combinations of Chitosan, Carnocin and Sulphite for the Preservation of Chilled Pork Sausages. Meat Science, Volume 62(2), pp. 165177

Sabbah, M., Di Pierro, P., Cammarota, M., Dell’Olmo, E., Arciello, A., Porta, R., 2019. Development and Properties of New Chitosan-based Films Plasticized with Spermidine and/or Glycerol. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 87, pp. 245252

Saloko, S., Darmadji, P., Setiaji, B., Pranoto, Y., 2014. Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activities of Liquid Smoke Nanocapsules using Chitosan and Maltodextrin and its Application on Tuna Fish Preservation. Food Bioscience, Volume 7, pp. 7179

Shariatinia, Z., 2018. Carboxymethyl Chitosan: Properties and Biomedical Applications. International journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 120, pp. 14061419

Siripatrawan, U., Vitchayakitti, W., 2016. Improving Functional Properties of Chitosan Films as Active Food Packaging by Incorporating with Propolis. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 61, pp. 695702

Souza, B.W., Cerqueira, M.A., Ruiz, H.A., Martins, J.T., Casariego, A., Teixeira, J.A., Vicente, A.A., 2010. Effect of Chitosan-based Coatings on the Shelf Life of Salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Volume 58(21), pp. 1145611462

Szymanska, E., Winnicka, K., 2015. Stability of Chitosan—A Challenge for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications. Marine Drugs, Volume 13(4), pp.  18191846

Tosati, J.V., de Oliveira, E.F., Oliveira, J.V., Nitin, N., Monteiro, A.R., 2018. Light-activated Antimicrobial Activity of Turmeric Residue Edible Coatings Against Cross-contamination of Listeria innocua on Sausages. Food Control, Volume 84, pp. 177185

Usman, A., Kusrini, E., Widiantoro, A.B., Hardiya, E., Abdullah, N.A., Yulizar, Y., 2018. Fabrication of Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Samarium Ion Potentially Applicable for Fluorescence Detection and Energy Transfer. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(6), pp. 11121120

Valencia-Sullca, C., Atarés, L., Vargas, M., Chiralt, A., 2018. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Compression-molded Cassava Starch-chitosan Films for Meat Preservation. Food and Bioprocess Technology, Volume 11(7), pp.  13391349

Vásconez, M.B., Flores, S.K., Campos, C.A., Alvarado, J., Gerschenson, L.N., 2009. Antimicrobial Activity and Physical Properties of Chitosan–tapioca Starch Based Edible Films and Coatings. Food Research International, Volume 42(7), pp.  762769

Xiao, C., Zhu, L., Luo, W., Song, X., Deng, Y., 2010. Combined Action of Pure Oxygen Pretreatment and Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Rosemary Extracts on the Quality of Fresh-cut Pears. Food Chemistry, Volume 121(4), pp. 10031009

Yi, D.Y., Siddique, B.M., Lai, J.C., 2018. Development of Biopolymer Film with Different Ratios of Gelatine to Chitosan Reinforced with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Food Covering/Preservation. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 429(1)

Zhou, G.H., Xu, X.L., Liu, Y., 2010. Preservation Technologies for Fresh Meat–A Review. Meat Science, Volume 86(1), pp. 119128