• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 11, No 4 (2020)

Edible Coating for Beef Preservation from Chitosan Combined with Liquid Smoke

Edible Coating for Beef Preservation from Chitosan Combined with Liquid Smoke

Title: Edible Coating for Beef Preservation from Chitosan Combined with Liquid Smoke
Hera Desvita, Muhammad Faisal, Mahidin Mahidin, Suhendrayatna Suhendrayatna

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Cite this article as:
Desvita, H., Faisal, M., Mahidin, Suhendrayatna, 2020. Edible Coating for Beef Preservation from Chitosan Combined with Liquid Smoke. International Journal of Technology. Volume 11(4), pp. 817-829

Hera Desvita School of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Muhammad Faisal Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No.7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Mahidin Mahidin Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No.7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Suhendrayatna Suhendrayatna Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jalan Tengku Syech Abdur Rauf No.7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
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Edible Coating for Beef Preservation from Chitosan Combined with Liquid Smoke

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of chitosan (ch) combined with liquid smoke (Ls) as an edible coating for beef preservation. The Ls used in this study was made from rice hulls pyrolyzed at temperatures of 300° C (T1), 340° C (T2), and 380° C (T3). An edible coating was made by dissolving ch levels of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% (w/v) into 3% Ls. Preservation was accomplished by soaking the beef in an edible coating solution for 15 minutes and subsequently storing it in a refrigerator (4–7°C); it was then observed every 24 hours. A food resistance test was carried out using the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and organoleptic (odor, color, and texture) tests. The odor value in the A4 sample (T1, 1.5% ch) did not change after four days in storage. By comparison, the other samples changed on the third day. Observations revealed that the beef texture did not change until the fourth day in the A4 (T1, 1.5% ch) and C4 (T3, 1.5% ch) samples. Color changes occurred in all samples on the fourth day, but the panelists considered the color values in the C4 sample (pyrolysis temperature 380° C, 1.5% ch) to be acceptable until the ninth day. The quality of the beef that was only preserved with Ls decreased faster than those preserved using a combination of ch and Ls. The longer the storage time, the greater the produced TVB-N value, indicating a reduction in beef freshness. The TVB-N value of the beef preserved with a combination of ch and Ls was lower than the beef preserved without ch. The TVB-N values ??significantly increased after four days in storage. However, all samples remained fresh and met the Indonesian National Standard for meat freshness, wherein the TVB-N values do not exceed 0.20 mgN/100g, until the eighth day. The results revealed that edible coatings made from a combination of ch and Ls can serve as alternative beef preservatives.


Chitosan, Edible coating, Liquid smoke, Rice hulls, Total volatile base


Chitosan (ch)-based edible coatings have seen wide use as preservatives for raw materials, such as beef, poultry, and other processed meat products. As a natural and cheap biopolymer produced from chitin, ch is often used for edible coating. During the deacetylation process, chitin-derived ch from shrimp and crabs consists of ?-(1-4)-2-acetamido-D-glucose and ?-(1-4)-2-amino-D-glucose units with antifungal and antimicrobial properties that are useful as composite materials and in cosmetics, biomedical fields, and food preservation (Abdou et al., 2008; Kusrini et al., 2014; Szymanska and Winnicka, 2015; HPS et al., 2016;  Da silva Santos et al., 2017; Hanafiah et al., 2018). Ch possesses antibacterial and antioxidant properties that can be used as biodegradable packaging (Siripatrawan and Vitchayakitti., 2016).

In addition to its antibacterial properties, ch is stable, biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, and relatively inexpensive (Ojagh et al., 2010; Balamurugan 2012; Pérez-Córdoba et al., 2018; Usman et al., 2018). Ch dissolves well in acidic compounds (pH<6.0) (Shariatinia, 2018) and does not dissolve in the neutral pH range. These properties make ch particularly suitable for the formulation of edible coatings. Thus far, the solvents used in ch include organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, lactate, citric, and succinate,   as well as inorganic solvents, including hydrochloric acid, nitrate, and phosphorus. Using 2.0% ch with the addition of 1.0% acetic acid can provide a strong barrier to oxygen, higher tensile strengths, and lower elongation, prolonging the shelf lives of sausages (Adzaly et al., 2016). Other, cheaper acid compounds can be used as alternatives to dissolve ch. 

Liquid smoke (Ls) can be produced from biomass materials, such as rice hulls, by using the pyrolysis method (Abdullah et al., 2017). In recent years, rice hulls have primarily been used for silica (Dhaneswara et al., 2020), ash (Ramadhansyah et al., 2011), and exothermic material (Idamayanti et al., 2020). Ls has an acidic pH and can serve as a substitute for the more popular acetic acid. In addition to containing acetic acid, Ls comprises phenol compounds that have antibacterial and antioxidant properties (Faisal et al., 2017) that can replace glacial acetic acid. Ls can affect the odors, textures, colors, tastes, and shelf lives of food products. The low pH and phenol compounds in Ls can also damage bacterial cells and inhibit bacterial growth. Edible coatings have been produced by combining ch with various natural ingredients, such as mint (Kanatt et al., 2008), calcium gluconate (Hernandez-Munoz et al., 2008), rosemary extract (Xiao et al., 2010), cassava starch (Araújo et al., 2018), tapioca (Vásconez et al., 2009; Pratama et al., 2019), gelatin (Kumar et al., 2018; Yi et al., 2018), green tea extract (Apriyanti et al., 2018), spermidine, and glycerol (Sabbah et al., 2019). The combination of Ls and ch as an edible coating that is safe for health can also be used as an alternative natural preservative for maintaining the quality of food products.

Edible coatings from ch and Ls have frequently been developed in the food industry, especially for processed meat products (Kanatt et al., 2008). Meats contain complete nutrients, but their quality can decrease due to chemical, microbiological, and physical processes. High protein levels in meat can easily undergo lipid oxidation, which causes decay due to pathogenic microorganisms. Meat preservation is usually carried out by adding natural preservatives, such as garlic (Rakshit and Ramalingam., 2013), eugenol from cloves (Roller et al., 2002), turmeric starch, and gelatin (Tosati et al., 2018) or by freezing, irradiation, cooling technology, and packaging (Zhou et al., 2010). Few studies have investigated edible coatings for food preservation that use both Ls and ch. Strawberries’ shelf lives can be extended to 6 days in the refrigerator (10°C) using 1.0% ch and 1.5% calcium gluconate as preservatives (Hernandez-Munoz et al., 2008), and sausages’ shelf lives can be maintained for up to 15 days in the refrigerator using ch as a preservative (Roller et al., 2002). Edible coatings to preserve beef have already been created from ch and Ls derived from palm shells (Faisal et al., 2019). While adding 3.0% Ls from palm shells with 1.0% ch to meat preserves its taste, odor, and texture so that it is acceptable to consumers six days after storage (Hanafiah et al., 2018), tofu and meatballs can be preserved for three days through a combination of 1.5% Ls and 2.5% ch (Purba et al., 2014). The combination of ch and Ls from rice hulls can serve as an alternative beef preservative. This study aims to determine the feasibility of using ch and Ls from rice hulls as a natural preservative for beef in cold storage.


The present study’s results indicated that edible coatings of Ls from rice hulls that have been modified with ch can be used as natural preservatives for beef. Edible coatings can extend shelf life and affect organoleptic and TVB-N values. Beef quality decreased four days after storage, regardless of whether ch had been added. Beef with ch had a longer shelf life and better organoleptic and TVB-N values than the samples without ch. Ch concentrations affected beef preservation and its organoleptic values. Beef preserved with 1.5% ch had the best organoleptic values of the observed samples, and it remained fresh up to eight days after the beginning of storage.



    The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia and Universitas Syiah Kuala for funding this work.


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