|Bekchanov Davron||1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Compounds, Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, 104, A.Temur str., Chirchik city 111700, Uzbekistan 2. Department of Polymer Chemistry, Faculty of Chem|
|Mukhamediev Mukhtar||Department of Polymer Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Uzbekistan, 4, Massif Universitet Shakharchasi, Almazar District, Tashkent 100174, Uzbekistan|
|Kutlimuratov Nurbek||Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Compounds, Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, 104, A.Temur str., Chirchik city 111700, Uzbekistan|
|Xushvaqtov Suyun||Department of Polymer Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Uzbekistan, 4, Massif Universitet Shakharchasi, Almazar District, Tashkent 100174, Uzbekistan|
|Juraev Murod||Department of Polymer Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Uzbekistan, 4, Massif Universitet Shakharchasi, Almazar District, Tashkent 100174, Uzbekistan|
In this paper, characteristics of the interaction of an anion-exchange resin PPE-1 formed using phosphonic acid and granular polyvinyl chloride were investigated. In addition, a reaction order of 1.43 and an activation energy of 47.8 kJ/mol for phosphorylation were determined. The as-obtained polyampholyte was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Optimum conditions for obtaining a new polyampholyte that selectively adsorbs non-ferrous metal ions on the basis of granulated polyvinyl chloride were determined. Sorption isotherms for non-ferrous metal ions were constructed, which were reasonably explained by Langmuir isotherms. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as isobaric-isothermal potential (?G), enthalpy (?H), and entropy (?S), were calculated to understand the nature of sorption. The examined polyampholyte selectively absorbed copper(II) ions.
Metals; Modification; Polyampholyte; Sorption
Currently, among various methods, polymer adsorbents are effective and widely used for the removal of non-ferrous and rare metal ions (Saad et al., 2011). Hence, polymer adsorbents are comparable to other recovery methods in terms of technical and economic efficiency, feasibility, and environmentally friendly technologies. Saad et al. (2011) crosslinked polyethylenimine (PEI) with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to afford a water-insoluble form and it was subsequently used as an adsorbent. As an extension of their study, (Saad et al., 2011; Saad et al., 2012), crosslinked polyethylenimine (CPEI) was phosphonated with phosphoric acid and formaldehyde for the selective removal of uranium ions. The binding affinity of phosphonated cross-linked polyethylenimine (PCPEI) with uranium ions as well as its regeneration for reuse were evaluated (Saad et al., 2012). The obtained polyampholyte exhibits up to 99% selectivity for uranium ions in the presence of competing metal ions (e.g. Mn, Ni, As).
Jeon and Kwon (2012) investigated the desorption characteristics of indium ions previously adsorbed on phosphorylated sawdust using various reagents such as HCl, HNO3, NaCl, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid. Results revealed that HCl is the best desorption agent from an economic viewpoint, with an ~97% desorption efficiency for indium ions at an HCl concentration of 0.5 M. Moreover, an extremely high desorption efficiency (~94%) is observed for indium ions at a solid-to-liquid of 10.0, and desorption is rapidly completed in 60 min. Recycled phosphorylated sawdust maintains an 85% removal efficiency of indium ions in the 4th cycle.
Elsharma et al. (2019) prepared a polyampholyte of nanocomposite bio-polymers, i.e., poly (N,N-diallyldimethylammonium chloride-co-acrylamide) grafted onto carboxymethyl cellulose/iron(III) oxide [P(DADMAC-AAM) CMC/Fe2O3] and poly(N,N-diallyldimethylammonium chloride-co-sodium acrylate grafted onto carboxymethyl cellulose/iron(III) oxide [P(DADMAC-SA)CMC/Fe2O3]], with various molar ratios of anionic groups and cationic groups using gamma radiation. The structure and morphology of the obtained materials were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Sorption batch sorption experiments were conducted using a radioactive indicator such as 60Co to remove Co(II) P(DADMAC-AAm) CMC/Fe2O3 and P(DADMAC-SA) CMC/Fe2O3 were evaluated from aqueous solutions. Experimentally, P(DADMAC-AAm) CMC/Fe2O3 and P(DADMAC-SA) CMC/Fe2O3 exhibit high sorption capacities of 69.67 mg g-1 and 75.17 mg g-1 for Co(II), respectively, making them potential sorbents for the removal of Co(II) from water or wastewater.
Zeng and Li (2014) employed an ion-exchange resin method for the purification of heavy metal ions such as Cu2+ from chemical wastewater and investigated the effects of flow rate, pH, and temperature on Cu2+ removal using a microporous, strongly acidic cation exchanger of styrene type D001. Results revealed that at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, a pH of 6.0, and a temperature of 30°C, a 99.8% removal rate of Cu2+ is reported over D001. Chemical wastewater can reach wastewater discharge standard.
Smanova et al. (2011) investigated the efficiency of fibrous materials based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) modified with hydroxylamine in organic and aqueous carriers, as well as with hexamethylenediamine and ethylenediamine. In addition, properties of the as-obtained fibrous sorbent for the sorption of iron(III) ions in an aqueous solution were examined.
Kiefer and Höll (2001) investigated the ion exchange of heavy metal ions (such as Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2+) as well as Ca2+, Na+, and NH4+, by two industrial processes using ion-exchange complex-forming resins comprising amino- and phosphate-containing functional groups (Purolite S 940 and S 950). The authors estimated sorption according to the theory of complexation of external surfaces, leading to a set of binary equilibrium sorption of ions, which remains unchanged in multi-ion systems. Kinetic parameters of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary equilibria for sorption and the balance of complex agents in the industrial effluent formed during the processing of metal surfactants are proposed on the basis of equations that calculated theoretical values ??of sorption and compared with experimental data (Kiefer and Höll, 2001).
Deepatana and Valix (2006) and Altun and Pehlivan (2007) independently investigated the release of trace amounts of non-ferrous and toxic metals using ion-exchange materials. Experiments were conducted using well-known industrial ion-exchange materials such as Lewatit CNP 80 and Lewatit TP 207 (Altun and Pehlivan, 2007). Authors investigated the effect of pH among solutions, sorption duration, metal ion concentration, and ion-exchanger amount during sorption. The examined complex media (Deepatana and Valix, 2006) exhibit a higher and more rapid sorption capacity for metal ions such as Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II). The optimal pH range of solutions for the ion exchange of the above metal ions on Lewatit CNP 80 and Lewatit TP 207 is 7.0–9.0 and 4.5–5.5, respectively (Deepatana and Valix, 2006).
Olufemi and Eniodunmo (2018) examined the comparative adsorption removal of Ni(II) ions from an aqueous solution using coconut shells and a banana peel. The Adsorbate dose, adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, particle size, and temperature were varied, and their effects on the percentage removal of Ni(II) ions were evaluated. By using both adsorbents, the Maximum removal rate is observed at pH 8.0. The optimum conditions for both adsorbents include an adsorbent dose of 4.5 g, a contact time of 30 min, and a temperature of 25°C for the coconut shell, and an adsorbent dose of 4.5 g, a contact time of 120 min, and a temperature of 25°C for the banana peel.
Previous studies reported the Preparation and identification of amino- and phosphorus-containing ion-exchange materials, as well as the study of selectivity for non-ferrous metal ions with the formation of stable chelates with these materials. In this study, the sorption of Cu(II), In(III), and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions of amino- and phosphite-containing polyampholytes is examined.
Under laboratory conditions for the obtained polyampholyte, the basic physicochemical properties established in the standard state were examined and compared with those of competitive ion exchangers. The as-obtained polyampholyte was not inferior to that used in the industry. From the kinetics and thermodynamic investigation of the extraction of Cu(II), Ni(II), and In(III) ions by the polyampholyte derived from granular polyvinyl chloride, the sorbent selectivity decreased in the order of Cu(II) > Ni(II) > In(III). This result was related to the strong coordination bonds of copper(II) ions with functional groups in the polyampholyte.
This study was conducted under the project PZ-20170926416 “The separation of metal ions from technological solutions and wastewater using ion exchangers based on local raw materials” financed by the Ministry of Innovative Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Altun, T., Pehlivan, E., 2007. Ion-Exchange of Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ ions from Aqueous Solution by Lewatit CNP 80. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 140(1–2), pp. 299–307
Ameer, A.A., Abdallh, M.S., Ahmed, A.A., Yousif. E.A., 2003. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyvinyl Chloride Chemically Modified by Amines. Opening Journal of Polymer Chemistry, Volume 3(3), pp. 11–15
Belkhouche, N.E., Didi, M.A., 2010. Extraction of Bi(III) from Nitrate Medium by D2EHPA Impregnated onto Amberlite XAD-1180. Journal of Hydrometallurgy, Volume 103 (1–4), pp. 60–67
Deepatana, A., Valix, M., 2006. Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Organic Acid Complexes: Adsorption Mechanisms of Metal-Organic Complexes onto Aminophosphonate Chelating Resin. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 137(2), pp. 925–933
Elsharma, E.M., Saleh, A.S., Abou-Elmagd, W.S.I., Metwally, E., Siyam, T., 2019. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Polyampholyte Nanocomposite Polymers for Removal of Co(II). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 136, pp. 1273–1281
Grachek, V.I., Shunkevich, A.A., Martsynkevich, R.V., 2011. Synthesis and Sorption Properties of New Fibrous Nitrogen- and Phosphorus-Containing Ion Exchangers. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Volume 84, pp. 1335–1340
Hannachi, C., Guesmi, F., Missaoui, K., Hamrouni, B., 2014. Application of Adsorption Models for Fluoride, Nitrate and Sulfate Ion Removal by AMX membrane. International Journal of Technology, Volume 5(1), pp. 60–69
Jeon, C., Kwon, T-N., 2012. Desorption and Regeneration Characteristics for Previously Adsorbed Indium Ions to Phosphorylated Sawdust. Environmental Engineering Research, Volume 17(2), pp. 65–67
Kiefer, R. Höll, W.H., 2001. Sorption of Heavy Metals onto Selective Ion-Exchange Resins with Aminophosphonate Functional Groups. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Volume 40(21), pp. 4570–4576
Kusrini, E., Kinastiti, D.D., Wilson, L.D., Usman, A., Rahman, A., 2018. Adsorption of Lanthanide Ions from an Aqueous Solution in Multicomponent Systems using Activated Carbon from Banana Peels (Musa paradisiaca L.). International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(6), pp. 1132–1139
Olufemi, B., Eniodunmo, O., 2018. Adsorption of Nickel(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution using Banana Peel and Coconut Shell. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(3), pp. 434–445
Saad, D., Cukrowska, E., Tutu, H., 2011. Development and Application of Cross-Linked Polyethylenimine for Trace Metal and Metalloid from Mining and Industrial Wastewaters. Journal of Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, Volume 93(5), pp. 914–924
Saad, D., Cukrowska, E., Tutu, H., 2012. Phosphonated Cross-linked Polyethylenimine for Selective Removal of Uranium Ions from Aqueous Solutions. Water Science & Technology, Volume 66(1), pp. 122–129
Smanova, Z.A., Gafurova, D.A., Savchkov, A.V., 2011. Disodium 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-oxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonate: An Immobilized Reagent for Iron(III) Determination. Russian Journal of General Chemistry, Volume 81(4), pp. 739–742
Yu, Z., Qi, T., Qu, J., Wang, L., Chu, J., 2009. Removal of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from Potassium Chromate Solution on Amberlite IRC 748 Synthetic Resin by Ion Exchange. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 167(1–3), pp. 406–412
Zeng, Y.G., Li, L., 2014. Study on Treatment of Heavy Metal lons of Chemical Wastewater by Ion Exchange Resin. Advanced Materials Research, Volumes 955–959, pp. 2230–2233