|Sudarno||1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, Jl. Budi Utomo 10 Ponorogo, East Java, 63471, Indonesia 2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fa|
|Sudjito Soeparman||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Mayjend. Haryono 167 Malang, East Java, 65145, Indonesia|
|Slamet Wahyudi||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Mayjend. Haryono 167 Malang, East Java, 65145, Indonesia|
|Agung Sugeng Widodo||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Mayjend. Haryono 167 Malang, East Java, 65145, Indonesia|
objective in this study was to construct a finned heat radiation reflector
using a cut cone-shaped stainless steel plate. In addition, its efficiency was
examined by the water boiling test by varying the fin rows and angles.
Measurements were performed on reflectors with one, two and three rows of fins,
which were compared with conventional stoves with and finless reflectors.
Furthermore, fin angles of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° were evaluated by the
variation in the fin rows, and the most efficient configuration was
investigated. Results revealed that finned reflectors increase the efficiency
of liquefied petroleum gas stoves. The highest efficiency (60%) was obtained
for the reflector with three finned rows and a fin angle of 10°. Compared with
those of conventional reflectors and reflectors without fins, 7.87% and 4.47%
increase in the efficiency was observed, respectively. Furthermore, the use of
finned reflectors enhanced the area of complete combustion.
Efficiency; Fin angle; Fin rows; Finned heat reflector; LPG stove
Low efficiency of liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG) stoves is attributed to the loss of heat from the flame,
which occurs due to the high
-temperature difference between the flame
and its surroundings caused by the distance between the head burner and load (Abdurrachim et al., 2009; Gohil and Channiwala, 2011; Syahrial, 2012; Widodo, 2014; Widodo, 2015). Therefore, this loss needs to
be minimized. On the basis of the results reported in previous studies, two methods can
be employed to improve the efficiency of LPG stoves: construction engineering (Dongbin et al., 2007; Pantangi et al., 2011; Khan and Saxena, 2013; Muthukumar and Shyamkumar, 2013; Wu et al., 2014; Mishra et al., 2015; Mishra and Muthukumar, 2018) and combustion optimization (Abdurrachim et al., 2009; Gohil and Channiwala, 2011; Syahrial, 2012; Widodo, 2014; Widodo, 2015; Widodo, 2016; Sudarno and Fadelan, 2016; Fadelan and Sudarno, 2017). With respect to construction engineering, one
approach involves the use of brass as a head burner material and that one with
a flat face design for increasing the thermal efficiency by 4% and 10%,
respectively (Pantangi et al., 2011; Khan and Saxena, 2013; Wu et al., 2014; Mishra et al., 2015; Mishra and Muthukumar, 2018).
Dongbin et al. (2007) have reported that the use of porous ceramics doped with rare-earth elements leads to the change in the fire colour from red to blue. In addition, CO and O2 concentrations of blue gas decrease by 40.9% and 12.8%, respectively. On the basis of other research results, the use of porous radiant burners (PRBs) leads to a 10% increase in the efficiency, with the production of more stable fire (Muthukumar and Shyamkumar, 2013). The use of a two-layer PRB in the combustion process using silicon carbon (SiC) and in the pre-heating process using alumina leads to an almost uniform radial temperature distribution. The thermal efficiency increases from 45% to 58%, whereas CO and NOx emissions significantly decrease (Pantangi et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2014; Mishra et al., 2015). Mishra and Muthukumar (2018) have employed the same method and reported a 10.1% increase in the thermal efficiency and a reduction in the CO and NOx emissions in the range of 190–410 and 4.8–21.5 ppm, respectively.
Nevertheless, limited studies on the optimization of fire utilization are available. Widodo has reported that the addition of grid material between the burner and load increases the efficiency of LPG stoves. A high efficiency of 58.8% has been reported for a 5-mm-thick grid (Widodo, 2016). Moreover, the loading height of a gas stove affects the obtained efficiency. The optimal loading height is 4 mm, and the mass flow rate is 0.0125 L/s (Widodo, 2015). Previously, the element of embers of a nickel wire mounted between the burners and load leads to the increase in efficiency. The highest efficiency is reported for the element with a single layer of embers with a nickel diameter of 0.2 mm: The efficiency is enhanced by 8.32% in comparison with that of conventional LPG stoves (Sudarno and Fadelan, 2016; Fadelan and Sudarno, 2017). Furthermore, Syahrial has reported that the efficiency of biogas stoves increases by 5.6% by using perforated heat reflectors and a diameter of 10 mm (Syahrial, 2012). Abdurrachim et al. has reported that aluminium gas-flow collector tools increase the efficiency by 10% compared with that of conventional stoves (Abdurrachim et al., 2009). This result is in agreement with that reported by Gohil and Channiwala (2011). The use of a cover to close the combustion chamber leads to the enhanced efficiency of the gas stove. An efficiency of 66.27% is obtained at a power of 1.7849 kW. According to Widodo (2014), the use of ceramic as a reflector material on gas stoves leads to a 2.68% enhancement in productivity, from 43.88% to 46.56%.
Previous studies have concluded that the use of reflectors leads to the increase in the efficiency of LPG stoves. However, given that the reflection of radiation involves diffusion, the use of finless reflectors leads to the loss of heat to the environment (Incropera et al., 2006; Holman, 2010). Therefore, in this study, fins are added to minimize the heat loss, which cannot be controlled by finless reflectors. In this study, the objective is to determine the effect of finned heat reflectors on the efficiency increase and temperature distribution of LPG stoves.
The use of finned heat
radiation reflectors in LPG stoves positively affects efficiency. Reflectors with
one row of fins exhibited an efficiency of 57.23%, representing 5.11% and 1.71%
increase compared with those of conventional stoves and stoves with finless
reflectors, respectively. However, reflectors with two rows of fins exhibited
an efficiency of 59.52%, representing 7.40% and 4.00% increase in comparison
with conventional stoves and stoves with finless reflectors, respectively. The
highest efficiency (60%) was observed for the reflector with three rows of fins
or 7.87% and 4.47% increase compared to conventional and finless stoves.This efficiency is greater than that reported in the study by Syahrial
(by 6.57%) and by Widodo (by 13.44%), in which a
perforated reflector with a diameter of 10 mm and ceramics as the reflector
material are used, respectively. On the basis of the contour of the isothermal
temperature distribution, the use of finned heat radiation reflectors increases
the area of complete combustion, thereby increasing the heat absorption by the
load and improving steam production; hence, efficiency is enhanced.
This study was supported by
a Doctoral Research Grant from the Ministry for Research and Technology Higher
Education of Indonesia, with contract No. 037/SP2H/LT/K7/KM/2018. The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Eng.
Mikrajuddin Abdullah from the Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia; Rizal Arifin, M.Si., Ph.D. from the Muhammadiyah
University of Ponorogo, Indonesia; and Dr. Muji Setiyo,
S.T., M.T. from the Muhammadiyah University of Magelang, Indonesia.
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