|Riesta Anggarani||- Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia - R&D Center for Oil & Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jl. Ciledug Raya Kav.109|
|Lies Aisyah||R&D Center for Oil & Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jl. Ciledug Raya Kav.109 Kebayoran Lama, Jakarta Selatan 12230, Indonesia|
|Cahyo Setyo Wibowo||- Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia - R&D Center for Oil & Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jl. Ciledug Raya Kav.109|
|Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|I Made Kartika Dhiputra||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
This study investigates the possibility of
substituting liquid petroleum gas (LPG) with dimethyl ether (DME) by considering the procedures
of burner design in terms of working region, flame stability, and flame height.
An experiment was designed using a cylindrical burner worked in atmospheric
pressure by means of diffusion combustion. Comparisons of the working region,
flame stability, and flame height were made between LPG, DME, and DME-mixed LPG
with DME compositions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% w/w. The results show
that, based on flame stability in terms of lift off (LO) and blow out (BO), the
uf working region for DME is
67.8% lower than that of LPG, while the burning load (BL) working region for
DME is 79.7% lower than LPG. Using the obtained uf working region, the average FH of DME is 31.4% lower than LPG. Blends of LPG and DME
improve the working region and FH of
Dimethyl ether; Flame height; Flame stability; Liquefied petroleum gas; Working region
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been used as the main source of energy, especially for the household sector in Indonesia, since 2008, when the government’s mega project of kerosene conversion to LPG began (Budya and Arofat, 2011). Currently, the demand for LPG can be divided into three sectors as shown in Figure 1 (MEMR, 2018).
Facing this situation, the option of using alternative energy is a good choice in order to reduce dependency on imported LPG. Dimethyl ether (DME) is emerging as an alternative fuel for LPG since it has similar properties that make it possible to be handled and distributed using the same facilities for LPG (Mako? et al., 2019), even though when using DME in LPG facilities, it should be considered to be careful on seals made of rubber-based materials (Saputra et al., 2016). Modification such as deproteinized natural rubber with acrylonitrile and styrene monomer is investigated to overcome the compatibility issue on rubber-based materials (Sari et al., 2020). Referring to Figure 1, the possibility of DME being used for household purposes is the main objective of this study. As DME will be used as a substitute for LPG in household stoves or burners, it would be more convenient to evaluate the operation parameters of current stoves or burners by comparing between DME and LPG.
Figure 1 LPG demand by sector in Indonesia in 2018
Basically, the design procedure for domestic gas cooking devices and general burners such as boilers is similar. The design process steps are as follows (Couto et al., 2004):  power assessment;  choosing the working region based on heat input (watt/m2) and flame stability;  calculation of fuel mass flow rate;  verification of flame size limits in terms of flame height;  design reliability check in terms of actual power and burner efficiency; and  pre-mixing pipe design. Some papers have investigated the design procedure steps for domestic gas burners separately. In relation to the investigation of DME as an LPG alternative, step  has already been done in a study comparing current stove power and efficiency using LPG and blends of LPG and DME (Anggarani et al., 2014). A comparison of flame size (as in step ) between LPG and DME was done in a co-flow type burner (Kang et al., 2015). Another study investigated the power produced by LPG compared to natural gas in a small industrial furnace (Zhou et al., 2016).
In this study, the burner design procedure in steps , , and  will be taken into account by comparing the parameters resulted experimentally in each step between LPG, DME, and blends of LPG and DME, or so-called “DME-mixed LPG.” This study aims to experimentally compare the working region based on heat input, flame stability including the calculation of fuel mass flow rate, and flame height of LPG, DME, and DME-mixed LPG in various compositions. As current stoves cannot be used directly with DME (Anggarani et al., 2014), we designed a cylindrical burner for diffusion combustion in atmospheric pressure, which becomes the originality of this study.
An experimental study was conducted in atmospheric pressure using a cylindrical burner worked by means of diffusion combustion to compare the working region, flame stability, and flame height of LPG, DME, and DME-mixed LPG with various compositions of DME. The results showed that, based on flame stability in terms of LO and BO, the uf working region for DME was 67.8% lower than that of LPG, while the BL working region for DME was 79.7% lower than LPG. Using the obtained uf working region, the average FH of DME was 31.4% lower than LPG. The gap of the working region and FH between LPG and DME can be improved by blending DME into LPG. The results of the working region and FH between LPG, DME, and DME-mixed LPG imply the necessity to design dedicated burners if DME is to be used as a fuel for any purpose. The other option is using blends of DME and LPG at an optimum composition to meet the requirements of current burners.
This study is a part of the research conducted for the completion of the doctoral degree program which is funded by a scholarship provided by the Ministry of Energy and Mining Resources of the Republic of Indonesia through SK Menteri ESDM No. 7282 K/69/SJN/2016.
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