|Muhammad Arif Budiyanto||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Muhammad Hanzalah Huzaifi||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Simon Juanda Sirait||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
The port sector has played an important role in global trade, with ports acting as a transportation chain-ring in environmental-social performance improvement. The usage of sea transportation means has spread across the world. Starting with the Kyoto Protocol for ships, the environmentally friendly trend has encompassed the port sector. However, it is difficult to find a model with the same characteristics as those of the ports as the models. The models can be used to compare operational performance regarding carbon dioxide (CO2) emission production. This research aimed to estimate CO2 emissions at container ports to portray how a port deals with its operational matters, using models suitable for ideal circumstances based on available equipment. This calculative system applies a bottom-up calculation of the work activities at a port, treating the amount of fuel consumption not as an input variable, but as the result of the calculation itself. The input variables include throughput, transshipment process, transportation modality, and terminal layout. The results show that several equipment operational activities can be optimized by comparing the calculation results for actual CO2 emissions. It was found that each twenty-foot equivalent unit produced as much as 11.27 kg of CO2 emissions at the Belawan International Container Terminal in Medan, Indonesia. This research has considerable potential use for ports, showing how to calculate CO2 emissions at a port under ideal circumstances, that models in use can be adapted to any port characteristics, and that the data serving as the input variables are not difficult to obtain.
Cargo handling equipment; CO2 emission; Container terminal; Greenport
Today's global trade makes the shipping sector one of those with vital roles in it. The need for shipping services keeps escalating, even in the gloominess of the global economy (Cullinane & Cullinane 2019). According to the Maritime Knowledge Centre (2011), over 90% of global trade involves sea transportation, and it is possible that the percentage will rise. With growing shipping activities involving cargo delivery, it is probable that port activities will also grow. (Zhang et al. 2017) reported that the increasing number of port activities resulted from expanding global trade is causing more emissions. The Kyoto Protocol, which has been conceptually adopted since the end of the twentieth century, has initialized the world's trend of concern for pollution by putting a limit on emissions (Bergqvist & Monios 2019). The world's maritime trend approaches an environmentally friendly system, driving the port sector towards increased effectivity and decreased emission generation from port production (Roh et al. 2016).
Bergqvist and Monios (2019) reported that there are still a few ports continuing to calculate emissions from their production. (Davarzani et al. 2016) clustered research topics from international publications related to emissions, environmentally friendly ports, and efficiency. (Yang & Chang 2013) compared rubber-tired gantries to electric rubber-tired gantries from the perspective of energy saving and carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction. Giuffre et al. (2011) counted vehicle emission factors on the basis of geometrical and traffic conditions, considering basic vehicle activities along with the time spent by vehicles (Giuffre et al. 2011). Several studies on reducing emissions have been carried out using biodiesel in diesel engines, with results showing promise regarding emissions control (Majid et al. 2016; Said et al. 2018). The initiative of energy saving in container terminals has been conducted through power consumption reductions in refrigerated containers; results have shown effective methods for reducing power consumption in this area (Budiyanto & Shinoda 2018; Budiyanto et al. 2018). Other studies on emissions reduction in container terminals have been conducted using building energy simulations to indicate some factors affecting increased energy consumption (e.g., solar radiation, container position, and weather condition) (Budiyanto et al. 2017, 2019a,b).
The large impact of port operational activities on the environment has drawn industrial and scholarly attention. (Berechman & Tseng 2012) studied Kaohsiung Port and found that the estimated combined cost of the environmental impact from ships and trucks in the port was over 100 million USD. With estimations based on energy consumption, Van Duin and Geerlings (2011) predicted that total CO2 emissions resulted from port operation using a model and the result indicates there is the differentiation with the actual performance (provided by the port) about 15%. (Samiaji 2011) stated from his study at 2004-1010 that the concentration of CO2 in Indonesia was escalating from 373 ppm to 383 ppm because of the conflagration of the biomass and the forest. By making use of emission burden inventories and records of sea transportation activities in ports, (Huboyo et al. 2018) found the distributions of emissions are dominated by the production activities of ports and the ship maneuvering and the results is port activities only contribute 1% of the activity of auxiliary engines when berthing time. (Lam & Notteboom 2014) reviewed the management of the renowned ports in Asia and Europe regarding pricing, monitoring, and measuring policies and the findings show that the ports are particularly mature in exercising environmental standard regulations which reveals that the enforcement approach is more prevalent. As hinterland transportation is a port mode, (Bergqvist et al. 2015) applied multi-actor multi-criteria analysis to evaluate the chance of improvising a system of hinterland transportation in a port in order to reduce the emissions of port activities. Research calculating the air pollution produced by vehicles in a city has been done (Ariztegui et al. 2004) profoundly for estimating emissions produced by some vehicles using instantaneous speed of the vehicle as the main variable in the study.
To improve port air quality, CO2 emissions require reduction, making emissions factor descriptions necessary. This research will estimate CO2 emissions at container ports to portray how ports deal with operational matters, using a model of an ideal condition, that there are no un-ideal activities, based on available equipment. Results would provide a description of port emissions, informing whether ports operate effectively, which could be used to evaluate operational conditions in suboptimal situations.
This research estimated port emissions, using ideal circumstances as its models, and determined that the emissions in the BICT were 11.27 kg of CO2 per TEU. The estimation of CO2 emission production with the models under ideal circumstances is a description for ports, which informs them whether operations are close to ideal. The results of this research can easily be compared to results calculating of actual CO2 emission production, making it possible to compare CO2 emission production from certain implements. This information indicates the range of operational matters that should be performed by an implement to minimize CO2 emission production, causing port operational costs to shrink.
The authors would like to thank the Belawan International Container Terminal of Belawan, Indonesia, for providing the data used in this case study. The authors also thank the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, for making facilities available.
Ariztegui, J., Casanova, J., Valdes, M., 2004. A Structured Methodology to Calculate Traffic Emissions Inventories for City Centres. Science of. Total Environment,. Volume 334–335, pp. 101–109
Berechman, J., Tseng, P.H., 2012. Estimating the Environmental Costs of Port Related Emissions: The Case of Kaohsiung. Transportation. Research Part D: Transport Environment, Volume 17(1), pp. 35–38
Bergqvist, R., Macharis, C., Meers, D., Woxenius, J., 2015. Making Hinterland Transport More Sustainable a Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analysis. Research in Transportation Business and Management, Volume 14, pp. 80–89
Bergqvist, R., Monios, J., 2019. Green Ports in Theory and Practice. Elsevier Inc.
Budiyanto, M.A., Nasruddin, Zhafari, F., 2019a. Simulation Study using Building-Design Energy Analysis to Estimate Energy Consumption of Refrigerated Container. Energy Procedia, Volume 156, pp. 207–211
Budiyanto, M.A., Shinoda, T., 2018. The Effect of Solar Radiation on the Energy Consumption of Refrigerated Container. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Volume 12, pp. 687–695
Budiyanto, M.A., Shinoda, T., Nasruddin, 2017. Study on the CFD Simulation of Refrigerated Container. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 257(Conference 1)
Budiyanto, M.A., Shinoda, T., Sunaryo, Nugroho, F.A., Wibowo, B., 2018. Estimated of Energy Saving from the Application of Roof Shade on the Refrigerated Container Storage Yard. J. Adv. Res. Fluid Mech. Therm. Sci. Volume 46(1)
Budiyanto, M.A., Sunaryo, Fernanda, H., Shinoda, T., 2019b. Effect of Azimuth Angle on the Energy Consumption of Refrigerated Container. Energy Procedia. Volume 156, pp. 201–206
Cullinane, K., Cullinane, S., 2019. Policy on Reducing Shipping Emissions?: Implications for “ Green Ports". Green Ports: Inland and Seaside Sustainable Transportation Strategies 2019, pp. 35–62
Davarzani, H., Fahimnia, B., Bell, M., Sarkis, J., 2016. Greening ports and Maritime Logistics: A Review. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 48, pp. 473–487
Giuffre, O., Grana, A., Giuffre, T., Marino, M., 2011. Emission Factors Related to Vehicle Modal Activity. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 6(4), pp. 447–458
Huboyo, H.S., Andarani, P., Hadiwidodo, M., 2018. Inventarisasi dan Sebaran Emisi Aktivitas Pelabuhan dengan Aermod View (Inventory and Distribution of Port Activity Emissions with Aermod View). Jurnal Presipitasi Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan, Volume 15(1), pp. 31–35
Lam, J.S.L., Notteboom, T., 2014. The Greening of Ports: A Comparison of Port Management Tools Used by Leading Ports in Asia and Europe. Transport Reviews, Volume 34(2), pp. 169–189
Majid, Z.A., Mohsin, R., Nasri, N.S., 2016. Effect of Bioethanol on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Fuel Engine. International Journal of Technology. Volume 7(6), pp. 972–980
Mubarak, A., Zainal, F., 2018. Development of a Framework for the Calculation of CO2 Emissions in Transport and Logistics in Southeast Asia. International Journal of Technology., Volume 9(4), 99. 787–796
Roh, S., Thai, V.V., Wong, Y.D., 2016. Towards Sustainable ASEAN Port Development: Challenges and Opportunities for Vietnamese Ports. The Asian Journal of Shipping. Logistics, Volume 32(2), pp. 107–118
Said, N.H., Ani, F.N., Said, M.F.M., 2018. Emission and Performance Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends in a Single Direct Injection Diesel Engine. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(2), pp. 238–245
Samiaji, T., 2011. Gas CO2 Di Wilayah Indonesia (CO2 Gas in Indonesian Territory). Berita Dirgantara LAPAN, Volume 12(2), pp. 68–75
The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia. 2016. Study of Use of Local Emission Factors (Level 2) in the Energy Sector GHG Inventory. Center for Data and Information Technology, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. Jakarta
van Duin, J.H.R., Geerlings, H., Tavasszy, L.A., Bank, D.L., 2019. Factors Causing Peak Energy Consumption Of Reefers At Container Terminals. Journal of Shipping and Trade. Volume 4(1)
Van Duin, J.H.R., Geerlings, H., 2011. Estimating CO2 Footprints of Container Terminal Port-Operations. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 6(4), pp. 459–473
Vasanth, M., Chowhan, S., Hiremath, A.M., Asolekar, S.R., 2012. Carbon Footprinting of Container Terminal Ports in Mumbai. In: International Conference on Impact of climate change on Food, Energy and Environment
Voet, M van der. 2008. CO2-Emissions by Container Transshipment Processes in the Rotterdam Port. A Method for CO2-Emissions from Transshipment Processes in the port of Rotterdam in Identifying and Impact of Proposed Policies and Knowledge to make (in Dutch). Master’s thesis, Delft University of Technology
Wilmsmeier, G., Spengler, T., 2016. Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency Indicators in Container Terminals-a National Inventory. In: Conference: IAME 2016, At Hamburg
Yang, Y.C., Chang, W.M., 2013. Impacts of Electric Rubber-Tired Gantries on Green Port Performance. Research in Transportation Business & Management, Volume 8, pp. 67–76
Zhang, Y., Peng, Y.Q., Wang, W., Gu, J., Wu, X.J., Feng, X.J., 2017. Air Emission Inventory of Container Ports’ Cargo Handling Equipment with Activity-Based “Bottom-Up” Method. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Volume 9(7), pp. 1–9