• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 10, No 8 (2019)

Estimating CO2 Emissions in a Container Port based on Modality Movement in the Terminal Area

Muhammad Arif Budiyanto, Muhammad Hanzalah Huzaifi, Simon Juanda Sirait

Corresponding email: arif@eng.ui.ac.id


Cite this article as:
Budiyanto, M.A., Huzaifi, M.H., Sirait, S.J., 2019. Estimating CO2 Emissions in a Container Port based on Modality Movement in the Terminal Area. International Journal of Technology. Volume 10(8), pp. 1618-1625

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Muhammad Arif Budiyanto Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Muhammad Hanzalah Huzaifi Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Simon Juanda Sirait Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Abstract
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The port sector has played an important role in global trade, with ports acting as a transportation chain-ring in environmental-social performance improvement. The usage of sea transportation means has spread across the world. Starting with the Kyoto Protocol for ships, the environmentally friendly trend has encompassed the port sector. However, it is difficult to find a model with the same characteristics as those of the ports as the models. The models can be used to compare operational performance regarding carbon dioxide (CO2) emission production. This research aimed to estimate CO2 emissions at container ports to portray how a port deals with its operational matters, using models suitable for ideal circumstances based on available equipment. This calculative system applies a bottom-up calculation of the work activities at a port, treating the amount of fuel consumption not as an input variable, but as the result of the calculation itself. The input variables include throughput, transshipment process, transportation modality, and terminal layout. The results show that several equipment operational activities can be optimized by comparing the calculation results for actual CO2 emissions. It was found that each twenty-foot equivalent unit produced as much as 11.27 kg of CO2 emissions at the Belawan International Container Terminal in Medan, Indonesia. This research has considerable potential use for ports, showing how to calculate CO2 emissions at a port under ideal circumstances, that models in use can be adapted to any port characteristics, and that the data serving as the input variables are not difficult to obtain.

Cargo handling equipment; CO2 emission; Container terminal; Greenport

Introduction

Today's global trade makes the shipping sector one of those with vital roles in it. The need for shipping services keeps escalating, even in the gloominess of the global economy (Cullinane & Cullinane 2019). According to the Maritime Knowledge Centre (2011), over 90% of global trade involves sea transportation, and it is possible that the percentage will rise. With growing shipping activities involving cargo delivery, it is probable that port activities will also grow. (Zhang et al. 2017) reported that the increasing number of port activities resulted from expanding global trade is causing more emissions. The Kyoto Protocol, which has been conceptually adopted since the end of the twentieth century, has initialized the world's trend of concern for pollution by putting a limit on emissions (Bergqvist & Monios 2019). The world's maritime trend approaches an environmentally friendly system, driving the port sector towards increased effectivity and decreased emission generation from port production (Roh et al. 2016).

Bergqvist and Monios (2019) reported that there are still a few ports continuing to calculate emissions from their production. (Davarzani et al. 2016) clustered research topics from international publications related to emissions, environmentally friendly ports, and efficiency. (Yang & Chang 2013) compared rubber-tired gantries to electric rubber-tired gantries from the perspective of energy saving and carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction. Giuffre et al. (2011) counted vehicle emission factors on the basis of geometrical and traffic conditions, considering basic vehicle activities along with the time spent by vehicles (Giuffre et al. 2011). Several studies on reducing emissions have been carried out using biodiesel in diesel engines, with results showing promise regarding emissions control (Majid et al. 2016; Said et al. 2018). The initiative of energy saving in container terminals has been conducted through power consumption reductions in refrigerated containers; results have shown effective methods for reducing power consumption in this area (Budiyanto & Shinoda 2018; Budiyanto et al. 2018). Other studies on emissions reduction in container terminals have been conducted using building energy simulations to indicate some factors affecting increased energy consumption (e.g., solar radiation, container position, and weather condition) (Budiyanto et al. 2017, 2019a,b).


The large impact of port operational activities on the environment has drawn industrial and scholarly attention. (Berechman & Tseng 2012) studied Kaohsiung Port and found that the estimated combined cost of the environmental impact from ships and trucks in the port was over 100 million USD. With estimations based on energy consumption, Van Duin and Geerlings (2011) predicted that total CO2 emissions resulted from port operation using a model and the result indicates there is the differentiation with the actual performance (provided by the port) about 15%. (Samiaji 2011) stated from his study at 2004-1010 that the concentration of CO2 in Indonesia was escalating from 373 ppm to 383 ppm because of the conflagration of the biomass and the forest. By making use of emission burden inventories and records of sea transportation activities in ports, (Huboyo et al. 2018) found the distributions of emissions are dominated by the production activities of ports and the ship maneuvering and the results is port activities only contribute 1% of the activity of auxiliary engines when berthing time. (Lam & Notteboom 2014) reviewed the management of the renowned ports in Asia and Europe regarding pricing, monitoring, and measuring policies and the findings show that the ports are particularly mature in exercising environmental standard regulations which reveals that the enforcement approach is more prevalent. As hinterland transportation is a port mode, (Bergqvist et al. 2015) applied multi-actor multi-criteria analysis to evaluate the chance of improvising a system of hinterland transportation in a port in order to reduce the emissions of port activities. Research calculating the air pollution produced by vehicles in a city has been done (Ariztegui et al. 2004) profoundly for estimating emissions produced by some vehicles using instantaneous speed of the vehicle  as the main variable in the study.

To improve port air quality, CO2 emissions require reduction, making emissions factor descriptions necessary. This research will estimate CO2 emissions at container ports to portray how ports deal with operational matters, using a model of an ideal condition, that there are no un-ideal activities, based on available equipment. Results would provide a description of port emissions, informing whether ports operate effectively, which could be used to evaluate operational conditions in suboptimal situations.

Conclusion

This research estimated port emissions, using ideal circumstances as its models, and determined that the emissions in the BICT were 11.27 kg of CO2 per TEU. The estimation of CO2 emission production with the models under ideal circumstances is a description for ports, which informs them whether operations are close to ideal. The results of this research can easily be compared to results calculating of actual CO2 emission production, making it possible to compare CO2 emission production from certain implements. This information indicates the range of operational matters that should be performed by an implement to minimize CO2 emission production, causing port operational costs to shrink.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the Belawan International Container Terminal of Belawan, Indonesia, for providing the data used in this case study. The authors also thank the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, for making facilities available. 

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