• Vol 11, No 2 (2020)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Rheology Characteristics and Critical Velocity of Particle-laden Flow Affected by Three-lobed Spiral Pipe

Sealtial Mau, Yanuar, Agus Sunjarianto Pamitran

Corresponding email: yanuar@eng.ui.ac.id

Cite this article as:
Mau, S., Yanuar, Pamitran, A.S., 2020. Rheology Characteristics and Critical Velocity of Particle-laden Flow Affected by Three-lobed Spiral Pipe. International Journal of Technology. Volume 11(2), pp. 248-258
Sealtial Mau Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Yanuar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Agus Sunjarianto Pamitran Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author


The use of piping systems for fluid transportation is increasing because it is considered the most effective method. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flows are suitable for piping systems, and non-Newtonian, particle-laden fluids are more complex due to various factors. Deposition is one of the problems that must continue to be investigated because of the effects of flow efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of the three-lobe spiral pipe effect. Working fluids in several variations of concentration weight (Cw 20%, 30%, and 40%) were used. Test pipe with a length of 1550 mm and consisting of spiral pipe P/Di = 7 and a circular pipe with an inner diameter of 25.4 mm were used. The circular pipe was used to investigate the rheological workings of fluid. Both pipes were used to investigate the particle effects. Using scanning electron microscopy, 1-?m to 5-?m slurry particles were obtained from the mud eruption source at Semau Island, Kupang, Indonesia. The critical velocity value of the spiral pipe was lower than the circular pipe, so the spiral pipe is highly effective for slurry transportation.

non-Newtonian; Particle solid; Passive control; Pressure drop; Spiral pipe


The piping system is considered the most effective medium of liquid transportation and is widely used in industrial and engineering productivity (Steffe, 1992; Priadi et al., 2017; Deka et al., 2018). Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flows are appropriate for transportation by piping systems. Although both fluids can flow in a pipe, non-Newtonian flow is more complex. Various studies have been carried out to produce efficient flow while reducing energy consumption. Two methods developed to obtain drag reduction are the active and passive control methods. The active control method is adds substances or additives to be better affect the flow through the working fluid (Gad-el-Hak et al., 2003). The passive control method is used to form the channel geometry needed to obtain a more effective fluid flow structure for the working fluid (Ganeshalingam, 2002).

    Various pipe cross-sections have been used as solutions for problems in piping systems, such as rectangular pipes, pentagon spiral pipes, and spiral pipes with three- and four-lobed variations (Watanabe et al., 1984; Watanabe and Yanuar, 1996; Ariyaratne, 2005; Selvaraj et al., 2011; Mau and Yanuar, 2018). The appropriate pipe geometry for working fluid is reasonable to facilitate the flow efficiency. Siswantara et al. conducted a simulation study on the first step to predicting the slurry flow in an anaerobic digester (Siswantara et al., 2016). The study was conducted with a numerical simulation method to achieve the correct planning basis so that the development of the digester was carried out efficiently. Matousek argued that each piping system designed for slurry must consider flow performance (Matousek, 2005). He assumed that it was more important to understand the permanent contact between the particles and the wall than the sporadic contact (collision) between particles. Matoušek’s assertion about the contact of slurry particles with the wall will be deeply analyzed in future research. Maruyama et al. conducted an investigation to study the solid effect in two-phase flow (Maruyama et al, 1979). He stated that deposits of solid particles can be reduced by the vortex flow, which is called vertical motion.

     On the other hand, both influences of pipe wall geometry and surfactant revealed by Yanuar combined the active and passive control methods (Yanuar et al., 2012; Yanuar et al., 2015). In their study, drag reduction was not influenced only by a mixture of drag-reducing agents but also by the wall of pipe geometry.

        Several previous studies related to piping systems have been carried out in conjunction with the impact on environmental losses and energy efficiency (Senapati et al., 2013; Yanuar et al., 2018). The particle-laden fluid flow transport characteristics of solid water mixtures in piping systems need to be thoroughly understood so that it can be used to solve piping application problems. Kim et al. revealed that when the mean velocity is higher than the critical velocity, hydraulic gradient of working fluid flowing through square duct is larger than that through circular pipe (Kim et al., 2008). This research carried out as an approach solution in piping system calculation for mud eruption in Indonesia that is detrimental the citizens, causing the loss of their homes and fields (Marbun, 2015; The Jakarta Post, 2015). The solid particles for the working fluid mixtures were obtained from a mud eruption in Semau Island, Kupang, Indonesia. For the apparatus setup, a spiral pipe with a three-lobed cross-section was used as it has been proved to be more efficient for two-phase flow with high viscosity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of three-lobed spiral pipe for the transportation of working fluids with 20%, 30%, and 40% concentration weights, Cw. The aim of the investigation was to reveal the impact of friction and particles by using three-lobed spiral pipe.


    Pressure drop was measured and energy losses calculated to investigate the performance of three-lobed spiral pipe in relation to particle effects. According to the rheological model step, the working fluid considered a pseudoplastic fluid with the n values are less than 1 and then by the friction factor calculation for spiral pipe, the higher DR value is 25.8% at Re' 5×104 and Cw 30%. Spiral pipe geometry can force fluid to flow at a tangential velocity and thus reduce energy losses due to secondary flow between liquid and particles. The fluid velocity value immediately after reaching the lowest point value of the hydraulic gradient indicates the velocity value needed as the threshold value in order for the solid particles to flow. The lowest value reaches limit threshold of fluid flow on this experiment is value on the spiral pipe. The critical velocity of each concentration in the circular pipe is 1.33 m/s for Cw 20%, 1.40 m/s for Cw 30%, and 1.43 m/s for Cw 40%. Meanwhile, the critical velocity value for working fluid in the spiral pipe is 0.46 m/s for Cw 20%, 0.79 m/s for Cw 30%, and 1.02 m/s for Cw 40%. The low critical velocity value is influenced by the geometry of the spiral pipe, where the tangential velocity generated becomes a trigger for the particle.


    This research was funded by a Penelitian Dasar Grant of the Research, Technology and Higher Education Ministry, Indonesia, 2020. NKB-1792/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019


Abulnaga, B.E., 2002. Slurry Systems Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill

Ariyaratne, C., 2005. Design and Optimisation of Swirl Pipes and Transition Geometries for Slurry Transport. Dissertation, Doctoral Program, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom

Chhabra, R.P., Richardson, J.F., 1999. Non-Newtonian Flow in the Process Industries: Fundamentals and Engineering Applications. 1st Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK

Deka, B., Sharma, R., Mandal, A., Mahto, V., 2018. Synthesis and Evaluation of Oleic Acid Based Polymeric Additive as Pour Point Depressant to Improve Flow Properties of Indian Waxy Crude Oil. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Volume 170, pp. 105–111

Gad-el-Hak, M., Pollard, A., Bonnet, J-P., 2003. Flow Control: Fundamentals and Practices. Germany: Springer Science & Business Media

Ganeshalingam, J., 2002. Swirl-Induction for Improved Solid-Liquid Flow in Pipes. University of Nottingham

Kim, C., Lee, M., Han, C., 2008. Hydraulic Transport of Sand-water Mixtures in Pipelines Part I. Experiment. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Volume 22(12), pp. 2534–2541

Kristiawan, B., Kamal, S., Suhanan., Yanuar., 2015. A Modified Power Law Approach for Rheological Titania Nanofluids Flow Behavior in a Circular Conduit. Journal of Nanofluids, Volume 4(2), pp. 187–195

Kristiawan, B., Kamal, S., Yanuar., 2016. Thermo-Hydraulic Characteristics of Anatase Titania Nanofluids Flowing through a Circular Conduit. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Volume 16(6), pp. 6078–6085

Mau, S., Yanuar, 2018. Effect of Calcium Carbonate Solution on Drag Reduction in a Pentagon Spiral Pipe. Akademia Baru, Volume 1, pp. 41–48

Marbun, J., 2015. Semburan Lumpur Dingin di Semau karena Pergeseran Lempeng Australia (Cold Mud Eruption in Semau due to Plate Shifting). Jakarta: Republika

Matousek, V., 2005. Research Developments in Pipeline Transport of Settling Slurries. Powder Technology, Volume 156(1), pp. 43–51

Priadi, C.R., Suleeman, E., Darmajanti, L., Novriaty, S., Suwartha, N., Resnawati, R., Handayani, R., Putri, G.L., Felaza, E., Tjahjono, T., 2017. Water Recycling Opportunity in the Business Sectors of Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Technology, Volume 8(6), pp. 1031–1039

Selvaraj, P., Sarangan, J., Suresh, S., 2011. Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics of a Water and Ethylene Glycol Mixture Flow of Internally Grooved Tubes. International Journal of Chemical Research, Volume, 3(1), pp. 33–40

Senapati, P., Mishra, B., Parida, A., 2013. Analysis of Friction Mechanism and Homogeneity of Suspended Load for High Concentration Fly Ash & Bottom Ash Mixture Slurry using Rheological and Pipeline Experimental Data. Powder Technology, Volume 250, pp. 154–163

Siswantara, A.I., Daryus, A., Darmawan, S., Gunadi, G.G.R., Camalia, R., 2016. CFD Analysis of Slurry Flow in an Anaerobic Digester. International Journal of Technology, Volume 7(2), pp. 197–203

Steffe, J.F., 1992. Rheological Methods in Food Process Engineering. Second Edition. USA: Freeman Press

Maruyama, T.,  Kojima, K., Mizushina, T., 1979. The Flow Structure of Slurries in Horizontal Pipes. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, Volume 12(3), pp. 177–182

The Jakarta Post, 2015. Drilling, not Quake, Caused Sidoarjo Mud Volcano. Available Online at https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/06/29/drilling-not-quake-caused-sidoarjo-mud-volcano-paper.html

Watanabe, K., Maeda, T., Iwata, T., Kato, H., 1984. Flow in a Spiral Tube: 1st Report, Velocity Distribution and Pressure Drop. Bulletin of JSME, Volume 27(228), pp. 1105–1111

Watanabe, K., Yanuar, 1996. Drag Reduction in Flow through Square and Rectangular Ducts with Highly Water-repellent Walls. Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Volume 62(601), pp. 1996–1999

Yanuar, Gunawan, Sapjah, D., 2015. Characteristics of Silica Slurry Flow in a Spiral Pipe. International Journal of Technology, Volume 6(6), pp. 916–923

Yanuar, Utomo, G.G., Rayhan, F.A., Akbar, M., Pamitran, A.S., 2018. Experimental Investigations of Ice Slurry Flow based on Monoethylene Glycol at High Ice Fractions. In: E3S Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences

Yanuar, N., Gunawan, I., Baqi, M., 2012. Characteristics of Drag Reduction by Guar Gum in Spiral Pipes. Jurnal Teknologi, Volume 58(2), pp. 95–99