|Elsa Anisa Krisanti||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Nugrahirani Hijrianti||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Kamarza Mulia||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
The non-volatile phenolic compounds of red ginger oleoresin are known to have high antioxidant properties to counteract a number of free radicals. Ginger oleoresin is easily degraded when exposed to air, light, water, high temperature, and low-pH conditions in the gastric area. The objective of this research was to evaluate chitosan-alginate matrices as biodegradable media for the targeted release of red ginger oleoresin in the gastrointestinal tract. The chitosan-alginate matrices were prepared using the ionotropic gelation method with varying weight ratios of chitosan to alginate. The encapsulation efficiencies, loading capacities, and cumulative release profiles were determined based on the total phenolic content of the samples. The in-vitro release assays of red ginger oleoresin in simulated gastrointestinal fluids showed that the chitosan-alginate matrices with a weight ratio of chitosan to alginate of 2:1 had a low initial cumulative release (4.3%) in simulated gastric fluid and a moderate final release in simulated colonic fluid (40.7%). The results indicated that chitosan-alginate matrices could be formulated for targeted release of red ginger oleoresin in the gastrointestinal tract and could be used as carriers to deliver bioactive compounds to the colon via oral administration.
Alginate; Chitosan; Ionotropic gelation; Oleoresin; Red ginger
The root or rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used since ancient times as a spice for food and traditional herbal medicine for treating inflammation, arthritis, neurological disease, gingivitis, asthma, stroke, diabetes, and tumors in China, India, and Middle East (Mashhadi et al., 2013; Zhu et al., 2013). A large number of phytochemicals present in the rhizome of ginger, such as phenolic compounds, sesquiterpenes, vitamins, and others, show antioxidant properties against free radicals, protecting cell membrane lipids from oxidation (Al-Nahain et al., 2014). Non-volatile oleoresin extracted from ginger rhizome containing 6-, 8-, 10?gingerol and 6-, 8-, 10-shogaol as well as their derivatives (Sonale & Kadimi, 2014; Varakumar et al., 2017) have been confirmed by using ion tandem mass spectrometry (Tao et al., 2009). Red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) is one ginger variant with a red root on the outside and a yellow-to-pinkish cross-section. The rhizome of red ginger contains phenolics and flavonoids in higher amounts than that of white ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Roscoe) (Oboh et al., 2012). Ginger oleoresin has been used as a food preservative (Krisanti et al., 2017) and also to cure prostate cancer (Karna et al., 2012), colon cancer (Deol & Kaur, 2013), liver cancer (Habib et al., 2008), and lung and cervix cancers (Choudhury et al., 2010).
Ginger oleoresin is susceptible to degradation when exposed to air, light, water, high temperatures, or gastric acid in the stomach (Harimurti et al., 2011). Therefore, it is of interest to find the right carrier to protect oleoresin from low-pH gastric conditions and to adjust the cumulative release of its bioactive compounds in the gastrointestinal tract. Chitosan has been used to prepare micro and nanoparticles or emulsions for the delivery of bioactive compounds through oral and topical applications (Agnihotri et al., 2004; Muharam et al., 2015). Protonated chitosan could react with negative ions in the mucous layer in the mucosa or peptidoglycan tissue (Wen & Park, 2011). This mucoadhesive interaction slows the release of the drug, thereby increasing its bioavailability. Alginate plays a role in protecting chitosan from degradation in acidic digestive conditions by forming an interpolymeric complex with chitosan. This complex swells and slowly releases the drug at a neutral pH (Tonnesen & Karlsen, 2002). In this study, red ginger oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate matrices were prepared using the ionotropic gelation method. The effect of varying alginate content on the cumulative release of the oleoresin in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids, corresponding to various conditions of the digestive system, were determined along with the total phenolic content, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures. It is expected that red ginger oleoresin–loaded matrices could be formulated as a medicinal or health supplement for gastrointestinal diseases.
The TPC in red ginger rhizome powder was found to be 28 mg GAE/g of dry sample powder, while the encapsulation efficiency was as high as 79% and loading capacity as high as 2% (weight ratio of chitosan:oleoresin:alginate of 10:1:1). The in-vitro release assays of ginger oleoresin in SGF showed that the chitosan-alginate matrices with a weight ratio of chitosan to alginate of 2:1 had low release in SGF (4.3%) and moderate release in SCF (40.7%). By selecting the formulation of the chitosan-alginate matrices, the targeted area of release of red ginger oleoresin in the gastrointestinal tract could be designed. The chitosan-alginate matrices had the potential to be carriers to deliver bioactive compounds to the colon via oral administration.
The authors are grateful for financial support from the Indonesian Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education through the Hibah Penelitian Dasar Scheme, contract no. NKB-1781/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019.
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