|Muhamad Sahlan||1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia 2. Research Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Un|
|Adam Muhammad Fadhan||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Diah Kartika Pratami||Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pancasila University, South Jakarta, DKI Jakarta 12640, Indonesia|
|Kenny Lischer||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Anondho Wijanarko||Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Kaysa Faradis Mahira|
Agarwood is the commodity that has the highest economic value in the world, especially its oil. However, agarwood essential oils have a volatile compound component of almost 90%. To overcome this volatility, the agarwood oil can be changed into a solid dosage by encapsulation using maltodextrin and gum arabic through the freeze-drying method. Encapsulation is one solution that increases the efficiency of the packaging process and of the distribution of agarwood oil. Four different formulations of agarwood oil encapsulation were obtained that differed in the ratio of the active ingredient, agarwood oil, to the encapsulating materials, maltodextrin and gum arabic (MD-GA): F1 (2:10), F2 (5:10), F3 (10:10) and F4 (12:10). The highest loading capacity was 68.6%, obtained in the F2 sample. The surface oil content value of the four formulations ranged from 3% to 21%. The value of the encapsulation efficiency in the four formulations was between 82% and 96%. In the morphological test, all four formulations had pores on part of their surface. Overall, all samples showed good results for loading capacity, surface oil content percentage and encapsulation efficiency.
Agarwood oil; Encapsulation; Freeze-drying; Gum arabic; Maltodextrin
Agarwood is recognized as one of the most valuable natural products in international trade due to its endless uses, ranging from being an ingredient in most foods to finished products, such as incense and perfume (Boon et al., 2016). The agarwood wood is distilled to produce the essential oil of agarwood. Most of these oil products are exported abroad from is country. Agarwood essential oil has many aromatic compounds, that almost 90% of these compounds have volatile properties (Chen et al., 2011). To overcome this volatility, agarwood oil can be made into solid doses by encapsulating it in maltodextrin and gum arabic through the freeze-drying method. Encapsulation is one solution that serves the efficiency of the packaging process and of the distribution of agarwood oil.
Encapsulation was performed with a maltodextrin coating and gum arabic. The advantage of maltodextrin is that the material can easily dissolve in cold water. Maltodextrins have various functional features, including enlargement and film-forming properties, fat-binding capabilities, and the reduction of oxygen permeability in the wall matrix (Akdeniz et al., 2017; Mangiring et al., 2018). Other coatings are made from gum arabic. Gum arabic can be used to bind flavors and as thickening agents, thin film formers and emulsifiers (Stounbjerg et al., 2018). Gum arabic is unique because of its high solubility and low viscosity (Pratami et al., 2019).
Drying the encapsulation products was carried out using the freeze-drying method. Freeze- drying is suitable for encapsulating essential oils (Prakash et al., 2018). Another advantage of the freeze-drying method over other methods is the maintenance of the quality of the drying product, so that the resulting product is much better than that produced by other drying methods (Bando et al., 2016).
The encapsulation of agarwood oil in our samples showed good results for loading capacity, surface oil content percentage and encapsulation efficiency. The efficiency decreased on the first, fifth, and tenth days in four samples F1, F2, F3, and F4. The surface oil content increased on the first, fifth, and tenth days. The largest loading capacity, 68.8%, was produced by F2. The more oil is coated, the more pores on the surface of the encapsulation agarwood oil. This method is suggested suitable for economical and large-scale production in industry.
This work is supported by Hibah Penelitian Pengembangan Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PPUPT) and funded by the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education (Grant No. NKB-1750/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019).
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