|Muhammad Idrus Alhamid||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Nyayu Aisyah||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
|Nasruddin||Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia|
This paper investigates the use of two low global warming potential working fluids, HCFO-1224yd(Z) and HCFO-1233zd(E), in high-temperature heat pump systems. A simulation was performed at evaporating temperatures ranging from 50–70°C and a condensing temperature of 110°C. A solar thermal collector was used to supply the energy needs on the evaporator side. Energy, exergy, and environmental analyses were performed to evaluate both environmentally friendly refrigerants and compare them to HFC-245fa. The coefficient of performance (COP) and total exergy destruction represented the performance of the system, while the total equivalent warming impact was used to evaluate the environmental effect of each refrigerant. At an evaporation temperature of 50°C, HCFO-1224yd(Z) and HCFO-1233zd(E) showed comparable performance to R245fa, with COP values of about 2.74 and 2.69, respectively (R245fa had a COP value of about 2.66). The same results were also obtained at evaporation temperatures of 60°C and 70°C, at which R1224yd showed good performance compared to R1233zd and R245fa with COP values of 3.6 for 50oC evaporation temperature and 4.75 for 70oC evaporation temperature. Additionally, both suggested refrigerants had low direct emission compared to R245fa based on the results from the environmental analysis.
COP; Energy; Exergy; Heat pump; Low global warming potential; Total equivalent warming impact
The world demand for energy is constantly increasing (Yabase et al., 2016), and according to the Ministry of Indonesia, fossil energy is still the primary energy consumed, with a growth rate of 7% per year (Fuadi et al., 2019). The need for cooling and air conditioning systems also continues to increase (Beshr et al., 2016); based on research studies, 40% of the total energy used comes from HVAC systems (Omer, 2008). These systems have a negative impact on the environment, as refrigerants used in the system usually contain hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC; Djubaedah et al., 2018), both of which cause global warming and can damage the ozone layer (Fukuda et al., 2014). The UNEP Ozone Secretariat banned the use of CFCs and HCFCs as refrigerants because of this damage to the ozone layer and recommended hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants instead. However, research has shown that HFC refrigerants have a high global warming potential, so the Kyoto Protocol regulations were issued to prohibit the use of HFC refrigerants (Beshr et al., 2016).
As seen above, energy and the environment are interrelated, so environmental aspects must be is considered when meeting energy needs (Nasruddin et al., 2019). One technology that could solve energy and environmental problems is the heat pump system. Based on data from the IEA Heat Pump Center, about 6% of the world’s CO2 emissions could be reduced using heat pump technology (Curtis et al., 2005). Using heat pump technology with a high coefficient of performance (COP) value could reduce the energy used by a system while decreasing CO2, NOx, and SOx emissions in the air (Omer, 2008). However, research on the heat pump system is still developing. The challenge for this research is making a system as efficient as possible while impacting the environment as little as possible (Nasruddin et al., 2017).
The used of low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant could be an option to minimize the effect of the system on the environment (Nasruddin et al., 2017; Aisyah et al., 2018; Aisyah et al., 2019). Mastrullo et al. (2016) conducted a simple model for the thermal cabin system to compare the energy consumption and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) value of R134a to the new environmentally friendly refrigerants R1234yf and R1234ze. The results showed that the R1234ze refrigerant has a smaller impact on the environment than R1234yf and is the best alternative refrigerant for R134a (Mastrullo et al., 2016). Aisyah et al. (2019) evaluated the use of low GWP refrigerants, including R1234ze and R1234yf, in a vapor compression heat pump system. The results showed that both refrigerants have a comparable performance to R410a (Aisyah et al., 2018). Beshr et al. (2016) investigated the potential of two low GWP refrigerants, N-40 and L-41a, as alternatives to R410A. Using the Life Cycle Cost Plan (LCCP) method, they found that both refrigerants have low environmental impact values and are environmentally friendly refrigerants suitable for replacing R410A (Beshr et al., 2016).
This study performed an evaluation of the use of R1224yd and R1233zd in a high-temperature heat pump system. Both refrigerants were considered to meet all aspects required for the next generation of refrigerant. R1224yd refrigerants have been referred as one of the candidates to replace current refrigerants with high GWP values (Watanabe et al., 2017). However, very few studies have introduced the use of R1224yd and R1233zd as working fluids in refrigeration systems. Thus, examining this refrigerant for the heat pump system was the novelty of this study. In this study, the heat pump system was modeled using MATLAB 2017a software and REFPROP ver. 10. Energy, exergy, and environmental analyses were carried out to determine the feasibility of both refrigerants to replace R245fa in a high-temperature heat pump system.
This study modeled a solar-assisted heat pump system to recover waste heat. Two alternative refrigerants, R1224yd and R1233zd, were evaluated through energy, exergy, and environmental analysis. The results showed that both alternative refrigerants performed comparably to R245fa in terms of COP and total exergy destruction. At an evaporation temperature of 50°C, R1224yd and R1233zd showed comparable performance to R245fa, with COP values of about 2.74 and 2.69, respectively (R245fa had a COP of about 2.66). The same results were also obtained at evaporation temperatures of 60°C and 70°C; R1224yd showed better performance compared to R1233zd and R245fa with COP values of 3.6 for 50oC evaporation temperature and 4.75 for 70oC evaporation temperature. An environmental analysis was also performed. Based on the TEWI analysis, both R1224yd and R1233zd had lower CO2 emission compared to R245fa. Therefore, from both a performance and environmental perspective, R1224yd and R1233zd could substitute for R245fa as working fluids for heat pump systems.
This research was funded by a grant from Ministry of Higher Education of Indonesia with the Penelitian Dasar Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PDUPT) Research Grant No. NKB-1650/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019.
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