• International Journal of Technology (IJTech)
  • Vol 10, No 8 (2019)

Utilization of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) in the Making of Low-fat Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata Duchesne) Ice Cream

Utilization of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) in the Making of Low-fat Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata Duchesne) Ice Cream

Title: Utilization of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) in the Making of Low-fat Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata Duchesne) Ice Cream
Melanie Cornelia, Sanny

Corresponding email:

Cite this article as:
Cornelia, M., & Sanny., 2019. Utilization of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) in the Making of Low-fat Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata Duchesne) Ice Cream. International Journal of Technology. Volume 10(8), pp. 1469-1478

Melanie Cornelia Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Pelita Harapan, UPH Tower, B Building, Karawaci, Tangerang 15811, Indonesia
Sanny Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Pelita Harapan, UPH Tower, B Building, Karawaci, Tangerang 15811, Indonesia
Email to Corresponding Author

Utilization of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) in the Making of Low-fat Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata Duchesne) Ice Cream

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) are foods that have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds. Date palm is known to have a high level of dietary fiber. This research study aimed to make low-fat pumpkin and date palm ice cream as a source of antioxidant and dietary fiber using different types of stabilizers (gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose; CMC). The pumpkin puree was made by adding water in a 1:1 ratio to pumpkin pulp based on previous research. The date palm puree was made with several different ratios of water (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3). The best formulations of date palm puree and pumpkin puree were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics (pH, total soluble solids, and color), antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid, total carotenoid content, and dietary fiber content. The date palm puree with a 1:1 ratio was selected as the best puree. Ice cream was made with different ratios of pumpkin puree and date palm puree, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1, using different stabilizers (gelatin and CMC). Each formulation was analyzed for its physicochemical (pH, total soluble solids, color, overrun, melting characteristic, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Ice cream with gelatin as its stabilizer and the 1:2 ratio of pumpkin puree and date palm puree was selected as the best ice cream formulation; it has 6.12% dietary fiber and 3.47% fat. Thus, the ice cream with the best formulation was high in fiber and low in fat.?

Antioxidant activity; Date palm; Dietary fiber; Ice cream; Pumpkin


Ice cream is a frozen dessert that is made by mixing milk-based ingredients (milk, cream, and butter) and non-milk-based ingredients (stabilizer, emulsifier, flavor, sweetener, and colorant) that has been previously pasteurized and homogenized (Arbuckle & Marshall, 2012). Usually, ice cream is high in fat, has a high number of calories, is low in antioxidants, and has a low amount of dietary fiber. Adding vegetables and fruits can increase the functional value of ice cream (Viquez et al., 2018). Fruits and vegetables are rich in phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds that lead to antioxidant activity (Kesuma & Yernrina, 2015; Iswanto et al., 2019). An antioxidant is a compound that can delay, prevent, or eliminate the negative effects of oxidants in the body (Winarsi, 2007). Fruits and vegetables also contain high dietary fiber that is useful for preventing various degenerative diseases, such as colon cancer, heart problems, and hypertension (Kesuma & Yernrina, 2015). Low-fat ice cream is generally preferable by consumers because it can be consumed in larger quantities (Sarofa et al., 2014).

Pumpkin is a high productivity vegetable cultivated around the world; it is rich in a variety of nutrients, such as phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds, minerals, and vitamins. Pumpkin has a long shelf life, low calories, and high fiber in its pulp and seeds (Santos et al., 2017). Pumpkin contains carotenoid compounds in the form of ?-carotene and ?-carotene. Pumpkin can contribute to the visual appeal of food as a natural yellow or orange colorant (Rantono et al., 2015). Pumpkin is known to have antioxidant properties because it contains carotenoid compounds, especially ?-carotene, as a precursor of vitamin A (Santos et al., 2017). However, carotenoids can be easily damaged and degraded in high temperatures (Mulia et al., 2018).

Date palm is one of the oldest fruit corps in the Middle East and North Africa that can be directly consumed. Date palm is usually harvested during the fully ripened Rutab and Tamar stages to maintain low moisture and high levels of sugar. Date palm could be categorized as a source of carbohydrate because it contains glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Date palm is also a good source of minerals, amino acids, fiber, and vitamins (Chao & Krueger, 2007). Date palm has been known to haven antioxidant activity due to its phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds. The fiber and phenolic content depend on the ripening stage of the date palm (Ghnimi et al., 2017).

Two types of stabilizers are usually used in making ice cream: animal-based stabilizers and plant-based stabilizers. Carrageenan, pectin, guar gum, alginate, and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are plant-based stabilizers. Gelatin is an animal-based stabilizer. CMC is used as a stabilizer in ice cream because it is lower in cost than other stabilizers, easily dissolved, and has high water holding capacity (Goff & Hartel, 2013). Different types of stabilizers produce different textures of ice cream (Arbuckle & Marshall, 2012). As a stabilizer in ice cream, gelatin can usually prevent crystallization of sugar and lactose during the freezing and storage process, so it produces ice cream that has a smooth body and texture (Mariod & Adam, 2013).

This present research study aimed to make low-fat pumpkin ice cream by adding date palm as a source of antioxidants and dietary fiber. The characteristics of the ice cream were determined using gelatin and CMC as stabilizers.  


The difference in the date palm-to-water ratio has a significant effect on the pH, total soluble solids, color, antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total carotenoid content, and the amount of dietary fiber of date palm puree. The date palm-to-water 1:1 ratio treatment produced the best date palm puree.

The best formulation is formulation 1, made with the gelatin stabilizer with the addition of pumpkin puree and date palm puree at the ratio of 1:2. The ice cream with the best formulation 1 can be categorized as a high-fiber ice cream because it contains no less than 6 g of dietary fiber in 100 g formulation. Moreover, the ice cream with the best formulation 1 had a fat content of 3.47%; since it is in the range of 2% to 5% it can be categorized as a low-fat ice cream.



The authors are very grateful to all the lecturers, staff members, and students in the Food Technology Study Program of Universitas Pelita Harapan for their recommendations and continuous support.


Al-Rimawi, F., Odeh, I., Hroub, A., Abbadi, J., Obeyat, L., Qabbajeh, M., 2014. Effect of Harvesting Date and Variety of Date Palm on Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 2(8), pp. 499–505

Arbuckle, W.S., Marshall, R., 2012. Ice Cream. Maryland, New York: Aspen Publisher, Inc.

Ardali, F.R., Akbarian, M., 2014. The Influence of Date Syrup on Color, Texture and Sensory Properties of Gaz. Bulletin of Environment Pharmacology and Life Science, Volume 3(2), pp. 159–163

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, 18th ed., AOAC, Inc., Arlington, VA

National Agency of Drug and Food Control (BPOM), 2016. Head Regulation of Supervisory Agency Drug and Food the Republic of Indonesia, Number 13 of 2016, Supervision of Claims on Processed Food Labels and Ads, Jakarta, Indonesia

National Standardization Body (BSN), 1995. Ice Cream. SNI 01-3713-1995. National Standardization Body, Jakarta, Indonesia

Chao, C.T., Krueger, R.R., 2007. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Overview of Biology, Uses, and Cultivation. HortScience, Volume 42(5), pp. 1077–1082

Clarke, C., 2012. The Science of Ice Cream. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Claudia, N.B., Rusmariin, H., Limbong, L.N., 2016. Effect of Ratio of Pumpkin Juice with Pineapple Juice and Concentration of Gelatin on the Quality of Coconut Juice Sorbet. Jurnal Rekayasa Pangan dan Pertanian, Volume 4(4), pp. 500–507

Ekissi, A.C., Konan, A.G., Yao-Kouame, A., Bonfoh, B., Kati-Coulibaly, S., 2014. Sensory Evaluation of Green Tea from Lippia multiflora Moldenke Leaves. European Scientific Journal, Volume 10(3), pp. 534–543

El-Sharnouby, G.A., Aleid, S.M., Al-Otaibi, M.M., 2014. Liquid Sugar Extraction from Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruits. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, Volume 5(12), pp. 1–5

Ghnimi, S., Umer, S., Karim, A., Kamal-Eldin, A., 2017. Date Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.): An Underutilized Food Seeking Industrial Valorization. NFS Journal, Volume 6, pp. 1–10

Goff, H.D., Hartel, R.W., 2013. Ice Cream. 7th ed., Springer Science and Business Media, London, New York

Hamad, M.N.F., Nekshara, H.H., Shasta, A.S., Tarabira, D.S., 2017. Effect of Addition Dates “Hayani” on Yield, Chemical Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Ice Cream. American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research, Volume 4(5), pp. 170–176

Hartatie, E.S., 2011. Formulation Studies (Raw Material, Ingredients, Making Methods for Ice Cream Quality). GAMMA, Volume 7(1), pp. 20–26

Hashim, I.B., Shamsi, K.S.A., 2016. Physiochemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Sweetened with Date Syrup. MOJ Food Processing and Technology, Volume 2(3), pp. 91–95

Hwang, J.Y., Shyu, Y.S., Hsu, C.K., 2009. Grape Wine Lees Improves the Rheological and Adds Antioxidant Properties to Ice Cream. LWT Food Science Technology, Volume 42(1), pp. 312–318

Inglett, G.E., Peterson, S.C., Carriere, C.J., Maneepun, S., 2005. Rheological, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Asian Noodles Containing Oat Cereal Hydrocolloid. Food Chemistry, Volume 90(1­–2), pp. 1–8

Iswanto, T., Hendrianie, N., Shovitri, M., Altway, A., Widjaja, T., 2019. The Effect of Mixed Biological Pretreatment and PEG 4000 on Reducing Sugar Production from coffee Pulp Waste. International Journal of Technology, Volume 10(3), pp. 453–462

Kalaikandhan, R., Vijayarengan, P., Sivasankar, R., Mathivanan, S., 2014. The Pigment Content of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. under Copper and Zinc Stress. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, Volume 3(3), pp. 1056–1066

Kesuma, S., Yenrina, R., 2015. Natural and Synthetic Antioxidant, Andalas University Press, Padang

Lemine, F.M.M., Ahmed, M.V.O., Maoulainine, L.B.M., Bouna, Z.A.O., Samb, A., Salem, A.M., 2014. Antioxidant Activity of Various Mauritanian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Fruits at Two Edible Ripening Stages. Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 2(6), pp. 700705

Mariod, A.A., Adam, H.F., 2013. Review: Gelatin, Source, Extraction, and Industrial Applications. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, Volume 12(2), pp. 135–147

Mulia, K., Adam, D., Zahrina, I., Kristanti, E.A., 2018. Green Extraction of Palmitic Acid from Palm Oil using Betaine-based Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents. International Journal of Technology, Volume 9(2), pp. 335–344

Mulia, K., Krisanti, E., Terahadi, F., Putri, S., 2015. Selected Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents for the Extraction of ?-mangostin from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) Pericarp. International Journal of Technology, Volume 6(7), pp. 1211–1220

Rantono, N.V., Nurhaeni, Razak, A.R., 2015. The Retention of Carotene in Yellow Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Durch.). Online Journal of Natural Science, Volume 4(1), pp. 104–110 Available online at http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/watershed/wqi_nsf.html, Accessed on December 25, 2015

Santos, L.C.O., Simao, V., Almeida, J.S.O., Aquino, A.C.S., Carasek, E., Amante, E.R., 2017. Study of Heat Treatment in Processing of Pumpkin Puree (Cucurbita Moschata). Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 9(10), pp. 234–243

Sari, N., Widanti, Y.A., Mustofa, A., 2017. Characteristics of Yellow Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Ice Cream with Variation of Milk. Journal of JITIPARI, Volume 4, pp. 96–103

Sarofa, U., Rosida, D.F., Khadik, M. 2014. Aktivitas Antioksidan Es Krim Buah Merahantioxidant (Activity of Fruit Red Ice Cream). Journal of Rekapangan, Volume 8(1), pp. 1–12

Sun-Waterhouse, D., Edmonds, L., Wadhwa, S.S., Wibisono, R., 2013. Producing Ice Cream using a Substantial amount of Juice from Kiwifruit with Green, Gold or Red Flesh. Food Research International, Volume 50(2), pp. 647–656

Tangkanakul, P., Auttaviboonkul, P., Niyomwit, B., Lowvitoon, N., Charoenthamawat, P., Trakoontivakom, G., 2009. Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic Content, and Nutritional Composition of Asian Foods after Thermal Processing. International Food Research Journal, Volume 16(4), pp. 571–580

Viquez, E.A., Rolinh, B.F., Krueger, C.G., Rainey, C.J., Reed, J.S., Ricketts, M.L., 2018. An Extract from Date Palm Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) Acts as a Co-agonist Ligand for the Nuclear Receptor FXR and Differentially Modulates FXR Target-gene Expression in vitro. PLoS ONE, Volume 13(1), pp. 1–23

Widiantoko, R.K., Yunianta, 2014. Pembuatan Es Krim Tempe – Jahe (Kajian Proporsi Bahan dan Penstabil Terhadap Sifat Fisik, Kimia dan Organoleptik) (The Making of Ice Cream from Tempe and Ginger - Study of Raw Materials Proportion and Stabilizers Proportions on the Physical, Chemical and Organoleptic Properties). Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, Volume 2(1), pp. 54–66

Winarsi, H.M.S., 2007. Natural Antioxidant and Free Radical: Health Application and Potention. Kanisius, Deresan, Yogyakarta

Yudhistira, B., Riyadi, N.H., Pangestika, A.D., Pertiwi, S.R., 2018. Effect of CMC and Arabic Gum in the Manufacture of Jackfruit Velva (Artocarpus Heterophyllus). In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 142, pp. 1–8