|Melanie Cornelia||Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Pelita Harapan, UPH Tower, B Building, Karawaci, Tangerang 15811, Indonesia|
|Sanny||Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Pelita Harapan, UPH Tower, B Building, Karawaci, Tangerang 15811, Indonesia|
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) are foods that have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds. Date palm is known to have a high level of dietary fiber. This research study aimed to make low-fat pumpkin and date palm ice cream as a source of antioxidant and dietary fiber using different types of stabilizers (gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose; CMC). The pumpkin puree was made by adding water in a 1:1 ratio to pumpkin pulp based on previous research. The date palm puree was made with several different ratios of water (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3). The best formulations of date palm puree and pumpkin puree were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics (pH, total soluble solids, and color), antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid, total carotenoid content, and dietary fiber content. The date palm puree with a 1:1 ratio was selected as the best puree. Ice cream was made with different ratios of pumpkin puree and date palm puree, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1, using different stabilizers (gelatin and CMC). Each formulation was analyzed for its physicochemical (pH, total soluble solids, color, overrun, melting characteristic, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Ice cream with gelatin as its stabilizer and the 1:2 ratio of pumpkin puree and date palm puree was selected as the best ice cream formulation; it has 6.12% dietary fiber and 3.47% fat. Thus, the ice cream with the best formulation was high in fiber and low in fat.?
Antioxidant activity; Date palm; Dietary fiber; Ice cream; Pumpkin
Ice cream is a frozen dessert that is made by mixing milk-based ingredients (milk, cream, and butter) and non-milk-based ingredients (stabilizer, emulsifier, flavor, sweetener, and colorant) that has been previously pasteurized and homogenized (Arbuckle & Marshall, 2012). Usually, ice cream is high in fat, has a high number of calories, is low in antioxidants, and has a low amount of dietary fiber. Adding vegetables and fruits can increase the functional value of ice cream (Viquez et al., 2018). Fruits and vegetables are rich in phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds that lead to antioxidant activity (Kesuma & Yernrina, 2015; Iswanto et al., 2019). An antioxidant is a compound that can delay, prevent, or eliminate the negative effects of oxidants in the body (Winarsi, 2007). Fruits and vegetables also contain high dietary fiber that is useful for preventing various degenerative diseases, such as colon cancer, heart problems, and hypertension (Kesuma & Yernrina, 2015). Low-fat ice cream is generally preferable by consumers because it can be consumed in larger quantities (Sarofa et al., 2014).
Pumpkin is a high productivity vegetable cultivated around the world; it is rich in a variety of nutrients, such as phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds, minerals, and vitamins. Pumpkin has a long shelf life, low calories, and high fiber in its pulp and seeds (Santos et al., 2017). Pumpkin contains carotenoid compounds in the form of ?-carotene and ?-carotene. Pumpkin can contribute to the visual appeal of food as a natural yellow or orange colorant (Rantono et al., 2015). Pumpkin is known to have antioxidant properties because it contains carotenoid compounds, especially ?-carotene, as a precursor of vitamin A (Santos et al., 2017). However, carotenoids can be easily damaged and degraded in high temperatures (Mulia et al., 2018).
Date palm is one of the oldest fruit corps in the Middle East and North Africa that can be directly consumed. Date palm is usually harvested during the fully ripened Rutab and Tamar stages to maintain low moisture and high levels of sugar. Date palm could be categorized as a source of carbohydrate because it contains glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Date palm is also a good source of minerals, amino acids, fiber, and vitamins (Chao & Krueger, 2007). Date palm has been known to haven antioxidant activity due to its phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds. The fiber and phenolic content depend on the ripening stage of the date palm (Ghnimi et al., 2017).
Two types of stabilizers are usually used in making ice cream: animal-based stabilizers and plant-based stabilizers. Carrageenan, pectin, guar gum, alginate, and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are plant-based stabilizers. Gelatin is an animal-based stabilizer. CMC is used as a stabilizer in ice cream because it is lower in cost than other stabilizers, easily dissolved, and has high water holding capacity (Goff & Hartel, 2013). Different types of stabilizers produce different textures of ice cream (Arbuckle & Marshall, 2012). As a stabilizer in ice cream, gelatin can usually prevent crystallization of sugar and lactose during the freezing and storage process, so it produces ice cream that has a smooth body and texture (Mariod & Adam, 2013).
This present research study aimed to make low-fat pumpkin ice cream by adding date palm as a source of antioxidants and dietary fiber. The characteristics of the ice cream were determined using gelatin and CMC as stabilizers.
The difference in the date palm-to-water ratio has a significant effect on the pH, total soluble solids, color, antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total carotenoid content, and the amount of dietary fiber of date palm puree. The date palm-to-water 1:1 ratio treatment produced the best date palm puree.
The best formulation is formulation 1, made with the gelatin stabilizer with the addition of pumpkin puree and date palm puree at the ratio of 1:2. The ice cream with the best formulation 1 can be categorized as a high-fiber ice cream because it contains no less than 6 g of dietary fiber in 100 g formulation. Moreover, the ice cream with the best formulation 1 had a fat content of 3.47%; since it is in the range of 2% to 5% it can be categorized as a low-fat ice cream.
The authors are very grateful to all the lecturers, staff members, and students in the Food Technology Study Program of Universitas Pelita Harapan for their recommendations and continuous support.
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