|Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta||Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|Setiyo Gunawan||Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|Badril Azhar||Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|Hanggoro T. Aditya||Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|Arief Widjaja||Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia|
|Yi Hsu Ju||Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106-07, Taiwan|
Recently, edible oil has been employed for biodiesel feedstocks. However, the use of such oil to fulfil energy demand raises certain problems, such as the sustainability of the practice due to its competition with food. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain alternative resources from non-edible oil. One promising biodiesel feedstock from a non-edible oil source is crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CCIO) because of its high oil content. The highest oil content in CCIO is triglyceride (TG), which influences biodiesel production. The higher content of TG results in a higher yield of biodiesel. Previous research on the conversion of CCIO into biodiesel with an environmentally friendly purification method and fast separation of compounds is limited. In this work, batchwise solvent extraction (BSE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were compared to achieve an effective and efficient method for TG purification. By using the microwave method with 450 watts of power for 30 minutes, a high content of TG was obtained. It was found that TG content increased significantly, from 75.99% to 83.46%. Using the BSE method with a mixture of petroleum ether?methanol (methanol 25%), a solvent-to-oil mass ratio of 5:1, time for the first 2 stages (48 hours), the TG content obtained was 82.02%. The data obtained for the microwave method are almost equivalent to the first 2 stages of BSE with regard to TG content (83.46% compared to 82.02%) and almost 0.01 times shorter than BSE (30 minutes compared to 48 hours).
Batchwise solvent extraction; Biodiesel; Free fatty acid; Microwave-assisted extraction; Triglycerides
Along with annual economic growth, population and regional development, the need for energy is also increasing. Fuel consumption increased rapidly from 2009 to 2015, from around 1,297,000 barrels/day (bpd) to 1,628,000 bpd, or an increase of 20.3%. In six years, there was an increase in fuel consumption of 331,000 bpd. Indonesia's oil consumption is showing an increasing trend due to its growing population and economy. As domestic production cannot meet domestic demand, Indonesia imports 350,000 to 500,000 barrels of fuel per day from several countries. The country needs more fuel oil to meet domestic demand, so an alternative source of renewable energy is needed.
Biodiesel is one of the solutions to fulfil domestic demand in Indonesia. Recently, biodiesel feedstock has used used edible oil, such as palm, soy bean, sunflower and rapeseed. The use of edible oil to meet energy demand poses many problems, such as the sustainability of the practice due to its competition with food, land and water (Kansedo et al., 2009). This competition will increase the price of raw materials, and almost 80% of the cost of biodiesel production is that of the raw materials (Saraf & Thomas 2007). The selection of the underlying raw material is based on the oil content and yield of the plant used as biodiesel feedstock, so that production costs can be lower (Gui et al., 2008). This oil content is usually determined by establishing the triglyceride (TG) levels which are mostly found in oil; on this basis, C. Inophyllum is one of the best feedstocks for biodiesel production. Aparamarta et al. (2018) report that the oil content of C. inophyllum is 70.38%.
The biggest challenge in using crude C. inophyllum oil as biodiesel feedstock is the large amount of free fatty acids (FFA) it contains. The level of these in oil should be below 3% for alkaline-catalyzed transesteri?cation (Ribeiro et al., 2011) and lower than 0.3% for edible oil (SNI, 2002). A high level of FFA will cause a saponification reaction, which can decrease biodiesel yields, hinder the separation of ester from glycerin, and reduce the formation rate of biodiesel (Thiruvengadaravi et al., 2012). Therefore, methods for TG purification are applied to achieve an optimal yield of biodiesel. Existing methods are chemical purification, which involves chemicals that can be hazardous in handling and which can damage the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to find a solution comprising an easy method to provide better separation of FFA and TG and which does not damage the environment. One approach is the batchwise solvent extraction (BSE) method, as used by Aparamarta et al. (2016), who succeeded in separating TG and FFA with purity and recovery of TG as the indicator for the effective separation of nonpolar lipid fraction from crude C. inophyllum seed oil. The resulting product had a TG content of 98.53% and FFA of 0.35%. However, this method requires a long separation time process.
Therefore, this study involved the addition of the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method to the TG purification process. MAE is an extraction process that utilizes the energy generated by microwaves with a frequency of 0.30-300 GHz in the form of electromagnetic non-ionization radiation. The advantages of the MAE method are that it has a lower solvent consumption, and a significantly reduced extraction time compared to conventional methods (Cercado et al., 2018). In addition, it has a better heating process, less energy consumption and increased yields (Liu et al., 2013). The heating process acts as the driving force to extract the triglyceride compound from the biological matrix in a shorter period of time (Patil et al., 2011). The method was used by Leong et al. (2016), who used microwave heating to obtain pyrolyzed oil from crude glycerol.
The purpose of this research is to study an effective method for TG purification as a biodiesel feedstock. The alternative raw material selected was Calophyllum inophyllum, on the basis of oil content and yield. The technology selected was batchwise solvent extraction (BSE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).
High purification of triglyceride (TG) was successfully obtained from crude Calophyllum inophyllum via batchwise solvent extraction (BSE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE). The data obtained for the MAE method are almost equivalent to the first two stages BSE for TG content (83.46% compared to 82.02%) and almost 0.01 times shorter than BSE (30 minutes compared to 48 hours). The optimum conditions using the BSE method were achieved at stage 9, with percentages of TG of 94.67% and of FFA of 0.63%. For MAE, the optimum conditions were obtained at 450 watts and 30 minutes, resulting in corresponding figures of 83.46% and 7.5%. The power and extraction time variables had a significant influence on the percentages of TG compound in the C. inophyllum oil.
This work was supported by a grant (138/Addendum/ITS/2019) provided by the Institute of Research and Public Services (LPPM), Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya, Indonesia.The author would like to thank Mr. Gunawan, Mr. Rayhan, and Mr. Adya for their excellent technical support.
|R1-CE-2920-20190404112722.png||Fig 1 MAE method|
|R1-CE-2920-20190404112812.jpg||Fig 2 GC and TLC result for BSE method|
|R1-CE-2920-20190404112851.jpg||Fig 3 GC and TLC result for MAE method|
|R1-CE-2920-20190404112934.jpg||Fig 4 Time effect for BSE method|
|R1-CE-2920-20190404113013.png||Fig 5a time effect for TG|
|R1-CE-2920-20190404113110.png||Fig 5b Time effect for FFA|
|R1-CE-2920-20190404113203.png||Fig 6a Power Effect for TG|
|R1-CE-2920-20190404113242.png||Fig 6b Power effect for FFA|
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