|Adnan Bakri||Department of Facilities Maintenance Engineering, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Cawangan Malaysian Institute of Industrial Technology, 81750 Masai, Johor, Malaysia|
|Izatul Husna Zakaria||Industrial Logistics, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Cawangan Malaysian Institute of Industrial Technology, 81750 Masai, Johor, Malaysia|
|Rahimah Kassim||Industrial Logistics, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Cawangan Malaysian Institute of Industrial Technology, 81750 Masai, Johor, Malaysia|
|Ahmad Nur Aizat Ahmad||Department of Production and Operation Management, Faculty of Technology Management, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat,Johor, Malaysia|
Mosques play a vital role in the Islamic community. Philosophically, they have been developed not only as places of worship, but also to function as a centre for various aspects of Islamic community development. However, these days, with the increasing number of mosques being built, it has become a big challenge for the mosque authorities to maintain the role of the institution as the centre of the Islamic community. This paper explores previously unstudied issues related to the critical success factors (CSFs) of the facilities management (FM) of mosques. The final aim of the review is to develop a conceptual framework incorporating a systematic FM approach to the sustainable performance of mosques. It makes a comprehensive literature review of numerous published sources, such as journals, books, websites, magazines and unpublished theses, focusing on understanding of the concept of the FM of mosques, the concept of the CSF approach, the growing importance of FM, and its significant role in supporting the current functions of mosques. The proposed conceptual framework developed from the literature review will provide guidelines and understanding of how FM should be conceived, managed and integrated with other key management activities within the context of mosques in Malaysia. It will also provide understanding of the best practical approach to the FM of mosques. The paper contends that this approach is certain to contribute to an environment and society as prosperous as it was during the golden age of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) if the concepts outlined in the proposed framework are adopted and adapted.
Critical success factors; Facilities management; Mosque facilities; Sustainable performance
Mosques are holy places of worship and should be honoured in the highest degree. Mosque facilities consist of all types of buildings and equipment for prayer and non-prayer purposes. The space layout of a mosque can be divided into two parts, namely internal and external space. The inner space includes the main prayer hall, a multipurpose hall, office, ablution area and toilet, while the external space comprises areas such as landscaping, roads and parking areas (Najafi & Sharif, 2014; Majid et al., 2015; Sapri et al., 2016). These facilities play a vital role in the realization of the roles of mosques by satisfying the physical and emotional needs of the users. They should be well maintained and must be in good working order, and be in functional accordance with the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him). One of the most fundamental ways to pay ones obeisance to a holy place is to keep it clean, neat and well-maintained in every regard. However, the literature shows that certain issues have arisen related to the facilities management (FM) of mosques, particularly with regard to to uncontrolled infrastructure, hygiene, inappropriate design, non-strategic location, inadequate sanitary facilities, poor monitoring tools and utilization of conventional facilities management techniques (Awuzie and Isa, 2017; Sapri et al., 2016 ; Mahazan & Abdullah, 2013). Therefore, it has been established beyond any doubt that FM plays an important role in maintaining the role and functions of mosques. As such, continual study is necessary to further improve its effectiveness.
FM plays an important role in the success of the built environment of any organization. Successful FM leads to better and improved workplaces. Many organizations have reassessed the contributions of FM towards the profitability of their business objective (Baaki et al., 2016; Kamaruzzaman et al., 2017; Awuzie & Isa, 2017). On the other hand, negligence in FM, which is an important management constituent, will have a significant impact on organizational performance. Inefficient or malfunctioning facility equipment will result in poor quality services and dissatisfaction amongst customers and users (Asbollah et al., 2016; Sapri et al., 2016). The role of FM in the success of organizations is crucial, and there is a need for fundamental study of sustainable FM operations. However, a brief search of Malaysian FM-related literature in several international journals showed that little has been published on this area. Generally, the growth of FM in Malaysia is considered to have been very passive, with a lack of fundamental understanding of the FM field, so FM is not being practiced in an appropriate way (Kamaruzzaman et al., 2010). The literature related to FM study only centers on healthcare services, educational institutions, and commercial and office buildings. The study of FM focusing on places of worship, for instance mosques, is still at an embryonic stage. In attempting to fill this void, this study aims to further explore fundamental and unstudied issues related to the FM of mosques. In order to study its effectiveness, it is necessary to reach an understanding of its current practice. Subsequently, appropriate improvements in FM operation in order to achieve the desired performance can be proposed.
According to statistics from Indexmundi (2018), 61.3 percent of Malaysia’s population is Muslim. Every year, the Malaysian government, through the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM), allocates appropriate funds to facilitate the development of the Muslim community in various fields and activities. Part of these funds are allocated to building new mosques and to the refurbishment of existing ones (JAKIM, 2018). This implies the importance of mosques from the Malaysian government perspective as centers for different aspects of Islamic community development. However, these days, with 6500 existing mosques and an increasing number of new mosques being built, it is becoming a big challenge to the mosque authorities to sustain the role of mosques as centers of the Islamic community. Significantly, these challenges necessitate a more effective system, particularly related to mosque facilities. Therefore, a fundamental study related to the FM of mosques is necessary in order to assist the authorities to make decisions about the critical success factors (CSFs) pertinent to the FM of mosque. CSFs are defined as a set of key ideas used to assist organizations to accomplish their strategic goals (Gates, 2010). They are a set of characteristics, conditions or variables, which are limited in number (usually ranging from three to eight), and which have a direct and serious impact on the effectiveness, efficiency and viability of an organization, program or project (Elmualim et al., 2010; Business Dictionary, 2018). The CSF constructs must be thoroughly considered and constantly followed by organizations in order for them to achieve their organizational goals (Elmualim et al., 2010; Gates, 2010). The idea of CSFs was first introduced in the 1960s and since then they have evolved and been implemented in different ways.
Mosques are very important places for the development of Islam and they have many particular functions (Sapri et al., 2016; Abdullah et al., 2017). In particular, a mosque provides a social service to the Muslim community with three specific major roles: as a place of worship; a center of Islamic education; and a center to foster intimate social relationships between the members of the Muslim community. Hence, mosques were developed not only for worship, but also to include all aspects of a Muslim’s life. In conclusion, mosques have a function as a one- stop center for the community to carry out its daily activities. Nowadays, the number of mosques is growing rapidly worldwide, in proportion to the increasing Muslim population. It is estimated that there are approximately 3.6 million mosques around the world, which translates to around 500 Muslims for every mosque. Malaysia is one of the countries with a high Muslim population.
1.1. Overview of Facilities Management
According to Business Dictionary (2018), facilities are defined as permanent, semi-permanent, or temporary commercial or industrial property, such as a buildings, plant or structures, which are built, established or installed for the performance of one or more specific activities or functions. The International Facilities Management Association (IFMA, 2018) states that facilities management (FM) is a branch of science that incorporates multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, processes and technology. The development of FM started in the USA in the 1980s evolving from property management, services and maintenance into a more proactive and strategic function (Jones & Jowett, 2011). FM tasks are multi-disciplinary and cover a wide range of knowledge, activities and responsibilities. FM role is vital since every aspect of an organization’s function is under the purview of FM (Patanapiradej, 2006; Kamaruzzaman et al., 2017).
The literature review provided an overview of the CSFs for an effective FM approach in mosques. Managing mosques is regarded as one of the main devotional tasks of Muslims to Allah (the Almighty). It does not refer to the facilities and assets themselves. FM is an integral part of the overall management of mosques. Therefore, mosque FM should be efficient and systematic in order to serve the main purpose for which the mosque was built. Efficient and effective mosque FM is vital in supporting various religious and community activities. In addition, the advances in science and technology necessitate mosque management to adopt up-to-date facilities management techniques. From the economics perspective, efficient mosque FM will also include various tangible and intangible values, such as improving cost-effectiveness through the optimization of electrical and water usage; quick action and fast decision making through systematic data monitoring; and improving safety, environmental and hygienic issues through systematic FM procedures. These will improve the quality of delivery and services to worshippers and have a positive impact on the prosperity of the mosque. A systematic FM approach to managing mosque facilities is still in its infancy. It has been discovered that no dedicated study has been made to assess FM in mosques. Therefore, there is an urgent need to study the FM approaches being adopted in mosques. The proposed new conceptual framework from the case study will provide guidelines and understanding on how FM should be conceived, managed and integrated with other key management activities within the context of mosques in Malaysia. It will also provide a clear and holistic understanding of the best practice approach to mosque FM.
The authors would like to thank Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL) for supporting this research under the Short Term Research Grant (STRG #16020).
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