|Chunhong Xia||School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Yunnan University, 650000, China|
|Yan Li||School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Yunnan University, 650000, China|
Kunming is located in the south-western part of China and a lakeside city situated on plateau. Its ecological construction is typically representative. This paper takes the ecological construction data of Kunming City from 2007 to 2016 as a sample, and uses the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Influence-Response (DPSIR) model to quantitatively analyze the date, aiming at an objective evaluation of the future ecological construction of Kunming. The urban road greening proposes practical measures. The results of research show that in the past ten years, Kunming's ecological construction has shown a “fast-slow-stable” upward trend, indicating that it has achieved remarkable results. In the future, importance will continue to be attached to the development of tertiary industry, focusing on the introduction of innovative talents, and encouraging the active participation of the citizens. This is the “three-horse carriage”, which means three horses pull the cart together, for the sustainable development of ecological construction in Kunming.
DPSIR model; Ecological construction; Index evaluation; Kunming City
As the global urbanization process continues to accelerate, the urban economy has developed rapidly, but this has also brought a series of environmental problems, such as air pollution, noise pollution, the greenhouse effect, and excessive occupation of farmland. After paying attention to how the urban ecological environment is protected and constructed, researchers are now focusing on evaluation of ecological environment measurement. At present, Chinese research mainly centers on two aspects. First, it evaluates the relationship between the ecological environment and urbanization, drawing on foreign research results, and conducting empirical tests on the scientific and sustainable development of the environmental Kuznets curve. Scholars generally use per capita GDP and “industrial three wastes” as indicators, and use multi-year sequence data to conduct empirical research on national, provincial, and prefecture-level city scales, together with the results of the research and environmental Kuznets curve. Consistent (Wenyan, 1994; Du, 1994; Yaochen & Bingdong, 1997; Guohua et al., 2017), further verifying the adaptability of the environmental Kuznets curve in China. The order is universal, and also shows that most of China's regions are still in an extensive development mode, with economic growth intensifying the pressure on the ecological environment. Scholars are also further enriching the theory of sustainable development (Gao et al., 1999; Zhu, 2000; Manhong, 2003), based on the continuous evaluation and application of sustainable development models, and constantly improving the evaluation index system of sustainable development from multiple perspectives (Jin-sheng et al., 2017; Huang, 2013; Guo, 2017; Yaochen & Bingdong, 1997; Xia & Zhengnan, 2013), on different scales of China. The concerned administrative unit conducts measurements to contribute to the complex relationship between population, resources, environment and sustainable development at all scales across the country, as well as the situation for sustainable development.
Located in the southwestern part of China, Kunming is the seat of the provincial capital of Yunnan Province. It plays a benchmarking role in the urban ecological construction of the province and is an important part of the construction of “Beautiful Yunnan”. In the Kunming City Master Plan (2011-2020), the city has repositioned its development goals, attempting to build itself into a gateway city based in southwest of China, and an important regional national transportation and information hub, making Kunming a melting pot, a culturally livable city with a history of humanities and natural scenery. In this paper, a set of evaluation index systems of ecological construction in Kunming is designed by the DPSIR model. The entropy weight method, AHP and linear weighting method are used to quantitatively measure the ecological construction of the city. Through the evaluation system, an objective analysis of the ten-year construction of Kunming eco-city is attempted to identify the advantages and disadvantages, and improve its inadequacies, making it a green city with ecological, tourism-economic integration.
Through the assessment of the ecological construction of Kunming City over ten years, inadequacies have been found; for example, excessive dependence on the government's environmental protection funds and lack of ecological technology investment. Moreover,the potential value of enterprises, non-profit organizations, individuals and technology in ecological construction has not been fully explored. Therefore, in the process of ecological construction in the future, the government should transform the “ecologically-oriented approach” into “ecological cooperation approach”, cultivating technical talents, and using environmental technology to develop ecological industries. This article has drawn lessons from the formulation and development of policies in governmental environmental protection work.
This research would not have been possible without the contributions of several people and organizations. To all of these, I wish to express my gratitude. First and foremost, I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor, Associate Professor Yan Li, for her vital encouragement and patient guidance, generous assistance and invaluable advice, all of which have been of inestimable worth to the completion of this research.
Second, my special thanks go to all the institutes that gave me authoritative data which confirmed the results of the study, namely the Government Statistics Bureau and Yunnan Provincial Library.
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